Accession of Albania to the European Union

Ongoing accession process of Albania to the EU

Current Progress
Chapters Closed
Not yet applicable
Prerequisites
Candidate Status Granted
Negotiations
Membership Application28 April 2009
Application Approved24 March 2020
Ratification of Treaty
Not yet applicable
Accession
Defense & Military
NATO
Accession1 April 2009
Major Obstacles
Economy
Adoption of Euro
Comparison
EU averageAlbania
Population16,555,8372,838,000
Area156,417 km2
60,536 mi2
28,748 km2
11,100 mi2
GDP$634 billion
(nominal, 2021 est.)
$742 billion
(PPP, 2021 est.)
$17.745 billion
nominal, 2021 est.

$40.151 billion
PPP, 2021 est.[1]
GDP per capita $34,149
(nominal, 2021 est.)
$44,766
(PPP, 2021 est.)
$5,991
nominal, 2021 est.

$15,255 PPP, 2021 est.[1]
HDI0.8950.795
Gini30.233.2
Differences upon EU Accession
Entire EU
EU Population449,845,596
Increase 0.63%
EU Area4,264,004 km2
Increase 0.68%

1,645,572 mi2
Increase 0.68%
EU GDP
EU GDP per capita
HDI0.891
Decrease 0.22%
Gini31.31
Negative increase 0.4%
New Official LanguagesAlbanian
Increase 1
Average EU Member
Avg. EU Member Population16,065,915
Increase 3%
Avg. EU Member Area152,286km2
Increase 3%

58,770 mi2
Increase 3%
Avg. EU Member GDP$611 billion
nominal, 2021 est.
Decrease 3.6%

$769.95 billion
PPP, 2021 est.
Decrease 3.5%
Avg. EU Member GDP per capita
Initiatives, Treaties, & Programs
Others
Travel
Accession to Schengen Area
Politics of Albania
Coat of arms of Albania.svg
Constitution
  • v
  • t
  • e

Albania is on the current agenda for future enlargement of the European Union (EU). It applied for EU membership on 28 April 2009, and has since June 2014 been an official candidate for accession. The Council of the European Union decided in March 2020 to open accession negotiations with Albania.[2]

However, the country did not start accession negotiations because its candidacy was linked to that of North Macedonia, which was vetoed by Bulgaria.[3] On 24 June 2022, Bulgaria's parliament approved lifting the country's veto on opening EU accession talks with North Macedonia. On 16 July 2022, the Assembly of North Macedonia also approved the revised French proposal, allowing accession negotiations to begin.[4] The start of negotiations was officially launched on 19 July 2022.[5]

Chronology of relations with the European Union

Officially recognised by the EU as a "potential candidate country" in 2000, Albania started negotiations on a Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA) in 2003. This was successfully agreed and signed on 12 June 2006, thus completing the first major step toward Albania's full membership in the EU.

Albania applied for European Union membership on 28 April 2009. After Albania's application for EU membership, the Council of the European Union asked the European Commission on 16 November 2009 to prepare an assessment on the readiness of Albania to start accession negotiations.[6] On 16 December 2009, the European Commission submitted the Questionnaire on accession preparation to the Albanian government. Albania returned answers to the Commission on 14 April 2010.[7] On 5 December 2013, an MEP meeting recommended to the council to grant Albania candidate status.[8] On 23 June 2014, under the Greek EU Presidency, the Council of the European Union agreed to grant Albania candidate status, which was endorsed by the European Council a few days later. Following in the steps of countries joining the EU in 2004, Albania has been extensively engaged with EU institutions, and joined NATO as a full member in 2009.

The European Commission recommended that the EU open membership talks with Albania in its November 2016 assessment.[9] In June 2018 the European Council agreed on a pathway to starting accession talks with Albania by the end of 2019.[10][11]

Albania's EU accession is bundled with North Macedonia's EU accession. Albania is given certain pre-conditions for starting the accession negotiations, such as passing reforms in the justice system, a new electoral law, opening trials for corrupt judges and the respect of human rights for its Greek minority.[12][13]

In May 2019, European Commissioner Johannes Hahn reiterated this recommendation.[14] However, in June the EU General Affairs Council decided to postpone their decision on opening negotiations to October, due to objections from a number of countries including the Netherlands and France.[15] The decision was vetoed again in October.[16] On 25 March 2020, the Council of the European Union decided to open accession negotiations, which was endorsed by the European Council the following day.[17][18]

Timeline
Date Event
1992 A Trade and Co-operation Agreement between the EU and Albania was signed, and Albania became eligible for funding under the EU Phare programme.
1997 The EU Council of Ministers established political and economic conditionality for the development of bilateral relations between Albania and the EU.
1999 The EU proposed the new Stabilisation and Association Process (SAP) for five countries of Southeastern Europe, including Albania. Starting from 1999 Albania benefited from Autonomous Trade Preferences with the EU.
2000 Duty-free access to EU market was granted for products from Albania.[19]
June 2000 The European Council stated that all the SAP countries are "potential candidates" for EU membership.
November 2000 At the Zagreb Summit, the SAP was officially endorsed by the EU and the Western Balkan countries (including Albania).
2001 The first year of the new CARDS programme specifically designed for the SAP countries.
June 2001 The Commission recommended the undertaking of negotiations on a Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA) with Albania. The Göteborg European Council invited the commission to present draft negotiating directives for the negotiation of a SAA.
31 January 2003 The directives for the negotiation of a SAA with Albania were adopted. Commission President Prodi officially launches the negotiations for a SAA between the EU and Albania.
June 2003 At the Thessaloniki Summit, the SAP was confirmed as the EU policy for the Western Balkans and the EU perspective for these countries was confirmed (countries participating in the SAP started to be eligible for EU accession and would join the EU once they would become ready).
December 2005 The council made the decision on the principles of a revised European Partnership for Albania.
12 June 2006 The SAA was signed at the General Affairs and External Relations Council in Luxembourg.[19]
9 November 2006 The European Commission decided to start visa facilitation negotiations with Albania.
13 April 2007 The visa facilitation agreement was signed in Zagreb. The signing EU Commissioner Franco Frattini was quoted saying that this is the first step toward a full abolishment of the visa requirements and the free movement of Albanian citizens in the EU.
1 January 2008 The visa facilitation agreement entered into force.
7 March 2008 EU Commissioner Franco Frattini while in Tirana opened the dialogue toward the liberalisation of the visa regime between Albania and EU.
1 April 2009 The Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA) entered into force.
28 April 2009 Albania formally applied for membership in the European Union.[19]
16 November 2009 The Council of the EU asked the European Commission to prepare an assessment on Albania's readiness to start accession negotiations. The Commission submitted the questionnaire on accession preparation to the Albanian government.[6]
14 April 2010 Albania submitted answers to the European Commission's questionnaire,[7] but candidacy status was not granted by the EU in December 2010 due to a long-lasting political row in the country.[20]
27 May 2010 The European Commission proposed visa free travel for Albania. The adopted proposal enabled citizens of Albania to travel to Schengen countries without needing a short term visa.[21]
8 November 2010 The Council of the European Union approved visa-free travel to the Schengen Area for Albanian citizens.[22]
15 December 2010 Visa-free access for Albanians to the Schengen area entered into force.
10 October 2012 The European Commission recommended that Albania be granted EU candidate status, subject to the completion of key measures in certain areas.
August 2012 The Albanian Parliament rejected a proposal to abolish immunity for parliament members, ministers and people in some other official positions. The EU required this to be abolished along with 11 other main issues, so candidate status was further delayed.[23] However, in September 2012 a constitutional amendment was unanimously passed which limited the immunity of parliamentarians.[24]
October 2012 The European Commission evaluated the progress of Albania to comply with 12 key conditions to achieve official candidate status and start accession negotiations. The report concluded that if Albania managed to hold a fair and democratic parliamentary election in June 2013, and also implemented the remaining changes to comply with the eight key priorities still not fully met, then the Council of the European Union would recommended granting Albania official candidate status.[25][26]
23 June 2013 Albania held a general election, generally regarded as free and fair.[27]
16 October 2013 The European Commission released its annual reports on prospective member states which concluded that the Albanian election was held in an "orderly manner" and that progress had been made in meeting other conditions; as such it recommended granting Albania candidate status.[28]
5 December 2013 In an MEP meeting it was recommended that "...the Council should acknowledge the progress made by Albania by granting it candidate status without undue delay."[8] However, several states, including Denmark and the Netherlands, remained opposed to granting Albania candidate status until it demonstrated that its recent progress could be sustained.[29] Consequently, the Council of the European Union, at its meeting in December 2013, agreed to postpone the decision on candidate status until June 2014.[30]
24 June 2014 Under the Greek EU Presidency, the Council of the European Union agreed to grant Albania candidate status,[31][32] which was endorsed by the European Council a few days later.[33] This coincided with the 10th anniversary of the "Agenda 2014",[34] proposed by the Greek Government in 2004, as part of the EU-Western Balkans Summit in Thessaloniki, for boosting the integration of all the Western Balkan states into the European Union.[35]
March 2015 At the fifth "High Level Dialogue meeting" between Albania and the EU, the EU Commissioner for Enlargement (Johannes Hahn) notified Albania that the setting of a start date for accession negotiations to begin still required the following two conditions to be met: 1) The government need to reopen political dialogue with the parliamentary opposition, 2) Albania must deliver quality reforms for all 5 earlier identified key areas not yet complied with (public administration, rule of law, corruption, organised crime, fundamental rights[36]).[37] This official stance, was fully supported by the European Parliament through its pass of a Resolution comment in April 2015,[38] which agreed with all conclusions drawn by the commission's latest 2014 Progress Report on Albania.[39] The Albanian Prime Minister outlined the next step of his government would be to submit a detailed progress report on the implementation of the 5 key reforms to the Commission in Autumn 2015, and then he expected the accession negotiations should start shortly afterwards - before the end of 2015.[37]
22 July 2016 The Albanian parliament approved constitutional amendments on justice reforms.
9 November 2016 The Commission recommended the launch of negotiations.[40]
26 November 2016 Germany announced that it would veto the opening accession talks until 2018.[41]
Early 2017[when?] The European Parliament warned the government leaders that the parliamentary elections in June must be "free and fair" before negotiations could begin to admit the country into the Union. The MEPs also expressed concern about the country's "selective justice, corruption, the overall length of judicial proceedings and political interference in investigations and court cases" but the EU Press Release expressed some optimism: "It is important for Albania to maintain today's reform momentum and we must be ready to support it as much as possible in this process".[42]
December 2018 Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras stated that respect of the rights of the Greek minority in Albania is a precondition for Albania's entry into the European Union.[43][12]
June 2019 The European Commissioner Johannes Hahn recommended that the EU open membership talks with Albania.[14] On 1 June 2019, the Council set out the path to opening accession negotiations, with talks thought to begin shortly thereafter.
September 2019 Germany's Bundestag set as its preconditions for Albania's EU accession negotiations the reforms in the justice system, continue the fight against drug trafficking, a new electoral law, creation of SPAK (Special Anti-Corruption Structure), functioning of the Constitutional Court & the Supreme court, appoint the new Prosecutor General, trials for the corrupt judges, and also drop some ambitions of Greater Albania.[44]
24 March 2020 EU ministers reached a political agreement on opening accession talks with Albania and North Macedonia.[45]
19 July 2022 The first Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) on accession negotiations was held between the EU and Albania. This marked the formal start of the accession talks. Additionally, the European Commission started the screening process.[46]
Status of SAA ratification
Event North Macedonia [47] Croatia [48] Albania [49] Montenegro [50][Note 1] Bosnia and
Herzegovina [52]
Serbia [53][Note 2] Kosovo* [54][Note 3]
SAA negotiations start 2000-04-05 2000-11-24 2003-01-31 2005-10-10 2005-11-25 2005-10-10 2013-10-28[56]
SAA initialled 2000-11-24 2001-05-14 2006-02-28 2007-03-15 2007-12-04 2007-11-07 2014-07-25[57]
SAA/IA signature 2001-04-09 2001-10-29 2006-06-12 2007-10-15 2008-06-16 2008-04-29 2015-10-27[58]
Interim Agreement:
EC ratification 2001-04-27 2002-01-30 2006-06-12 2007-10-15 2008-06-16 2009-12-08 N/A [Note 4]
SAP state ratification 2001-04-27 2002-01-30 2006-10-09 2007-11-14 2008-06-20 2008-09-22 N/A [Note 4]
entry into force 2001-06-01 2002-03-01 2006-12-01 2008-01-01 2008-07-01 2010-02-01 N/A [Note 4]
Deposit of the instrument of ratification:
SAP state 2001-04-27 2002-01-30 2006-11-09 2007-11-13 2009-02-26 2008-09-22 2016-02-26
Austria 2002-09-06 2002-03-15 2008-05-21 2008-07-04 2009-09-04 2011-01-13 N/A
Belgium 2003-12-29 2003-12-17 2008-10-22 2010-03-29 2010-03-29 2012-03-20 N/A
Bulgaria entered the EU later 2008-05-30 2009-03-13 2010-08-12 N/A
Croatia entered the EU later N/A
Cyprus entered the EU later 2008-05-30 2008-11-20 2009-07-02 2010-11-26 N/A
Czech Republic entered the EU later 2008-05-07 2009-02-19 2009-07-23 2011-01-28 N/A
Denmark 2002-04-10 2002-05-08 2008-04-24 2008-06-25 2009-05-26 2011-03-04 N/A
Estonia entered the EU later 2007-10-17 2007-11-22 2008-09-11 2010-08-19 N/A
Finland 2004-01-06 2004-01-06 2007-11-29 2009-03-18 2009-04-07 2011-10-21 N/A
France 2003-06-04 2003-06-04 2009-02-12 2009-07-30 2011-02-10 2012-01-16 N/A
Germany 2002-06-20 2002-10-18 2009-02-19 2009-11-16 2009-08-14 2012-02-24 N/A
Greece 2003-08-27 2003-08-27 2009-02-26 2010-03-04 2010-09-20 2011-03-10 N/A
Hungary entered the EU later 2007-04-23 2008-05-14 2008-10-22 2010-11-16 N/A
Ireland 2002-05-06 2002-05-06 2007-06-11 2009-06-04 2009-06-04 2011-09-29 N/A
Italy 2003-10-30 2004-10-06 2008-01-07 2009-10-13 2010-09-08 2011-01-06 N/A
Latvia entered the EU later 2006-12-19 2008-10-17 2009-11-12 2011-05-30 N/A
Lithuania entered the EU later 2007-05-17 2009-03-04 2009-05-04 2013-06-26 N/A
Luxembourg 2003-07-28 2003-08-01 2007-07-04 2009-06-11 2010-12-22 2011-01-21 N/A
Malta entered the EU later 2008-04-21 2008-12-11 2010-01-07 2010-07-06 N/A
Netherlands 2002-09-09 2004-04-30 2007-12-10 2009-01-29 2009-09-30 2012-02-27 N/A
Poland entered the EU later 2007-04-14 2009-02-06 2010-04-07 2012-01-13 N/A
Portugal 2003-07-14 2003-07-14 2008-07-11 2008-09-23 2009-06-29 2011-03-04 N/A
Romania entered the EU later 2009-01-15 2010-01-08 2012-05-22 N/A
Slovakia entered the EU later 2007-07-20 2008-07-29 2009-03-17 2010-11-11 N/A
Slovenia entered the EU later 2007-01-18 2008-02-07 2009-03-10 2010-12-07 N/A
Spain 2002-10-04 2002-10-04 2007-05-03 2009-03-12 2010-06-15 2010-06-21 N/A
Sweden 2002-06-25 2003-03-27 2007-03-21 2009-03-11 2009-09-14 2011-04-15 N/A
United Kingdom 2002-12-17 2004-09-03 2007-10-16 2010-01-12 2010-04-20 2011-08-11 N/A
European Communities or
European Union and Euratom
2004-02-25 2004-12-21 2009-02-26 2010-03-29 2015-04-30 2013-07-22 2016-02-24 [Note 5]
SAA entry into force 2004-04-01 2005-02-01 2009-04-01 2010-05-01 2015-06-01 2013-09-01 2016-04-01[62]
EU membership (SAA lapsed) (TBD) 2013-07-01 (TBD) (TBD) (TBD) (TBD) (TBD)

N/A: Not applicable.

  1. ^ Montenegro started negotiations in November 2005 while a part of Serbia and Montenegro (SiM). Separate technical negotiations were conducted regarding issues of sub-state organizational competency. A mandate for direct negotiations with Montenegro was established in July 2006. Direct negotiations were initiated on 26 September 2006 and concluded on 1 December 2006.[51]
  2. ^ Serbia started negotiations in November 2005 while part of SiM, with a modified mandate from July 2006.
  3. ^ The political status of Kosovo is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, Kosovo is formally recognised as an independent state by 100 UN member states (with another 13 states recognising it at some point but then withdrawing their recognition) and 93 states not recognizing it, while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The European Union remains divided on its policy towards Kosovo, with five EU member states not recognizing its independence. The EU launched a Stabilisation Tracking Mechanism for Kosovo on 6 November 2002 with the aim of aligning its policy with EU standards. On 10 October 2012 the European Commission found that there were no legal obstacles to Kosovo signing a SAA with the EU, as independence is not required for such an agreement.[55]
  4. ^ a b c No Interim Agreement associated with Kosovo's SAA was concluded.[59]
  5. ^ Kosovo's SAA was the first signed after the entry into force of the Lisbon treaty, which conferred a legal personality to the EU. As a result, unlike previous SAAs Kosovo's is exclusively between it and the EU and Euratom, and the member states are not parties independently.[56][60][61]

Visa liberalisation process

On 1 January 2008 the visa facilitation and readmission agreements between Albania and the EU entered into force.[63] Albania received a road map from the EU for further visa liberalisation with Schengen countries in June 2008.[63]

Albania started issuing biometric passports on 24 May 2009, which were designed to comply with EU guidelines.[64][65] On 8 November 2010 the Council of the European Union approved visa-free travel to the EU for citizens of Albania.[22] The decision entered into force on 15 December 2010.[66]

EU financial aid

In 2011, the EU paid €6 million to construct or refurbish border crossing points and border police stations to help Albania fight organised crime and illegal trafficking.[67]

Until 2020, Albania had been receiving €1.2bn of developmental aid from the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance, a funding mechanism for EU candidate countries.

Negotiation progress

The screening process is underway and no chapters have been opened thus far.

Screening and Chapter Dates
Progression 35 / 35
100% complete
0 / 35
0% complete
0 / 35
0% complete
0 / 35
0% complete
Acquis chapter Screening Started Screening Completed Chapter Opened Chapter Closed
1. Free Movement of Goods 2019-01-17
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers 2019-03-13
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services 2018-12-11
4. Free Movement of Capital 2019-01-10
5. Public Procurement 2018-12-06
6. Company Law 2019-10-21
7. Intellectual Property Law 2019-02-07
8. Competition Policy 2019-11-04
9. Financial Services 2019-04-09
10. Information Society & Media 2019-11-20
11. Agriculture & Rural Development 2019-12-06
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy 2019-02-18
13. Fisheries 2019-06-12
14. Transport Policy 2019-06-24
15. Energy 2019-03-26
16. Taxation 2019-06-03
17. Economic & Monetary Policy 2019-01-10
18. Statistics 2019-02-12
19. Social Policy & Employment 2019-04-03
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy 2019-01-29
21. Trans-European Networks 2019-03-27
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments 2019-02-05
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights 2018-09-27
24. Justice, Freedom & Security 2018-11-12
25. Science & Research 2019-03-11
26. Education & Culture 2019-03-12
27. Environment & Climate Change 2019-05-13
28. Consumer & Health Protection 2019-03-28
29. Customs Union 2019-09-23
30. External Relations 2019-09-25
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy 2019-09-26
32. Financial Control 2018-12-05
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions 2019-09-27
34. Institutions
35. Other Issues
October 2021 European Commission Report
Acquis chapter Status as of Oct 2021[68] Chapter Status
Overview 1 chapters at early stage
10 chapters with some level of preparation
20 chapters with moderate preparation
2 chapter with good level of preparation
2 chapters with nothing to adopt
0 chapters opened
1. Free Movement of Goods Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers Some level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
4. Free Movement of Capital Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
5. Public Procurement Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
6. Company Law Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
7. Intellectual Property Law Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
8. Competition Policy Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
9. Financial Services Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
10. Information Society & Media Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
11. Agriculture & Rural Development Some level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy Some level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
13. Fisheries Some level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
14. Transport Policy Some level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
15. Energy Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
16. Taxation Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
17. Economic & Monetary Policy Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
18. Statistics Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
19. Social Policy & Employment Some level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
21. Trans-European Networks Some level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
24. Justice, Freedom & Security Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
25. Science & Research Some level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
26. Education & Culture Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
27. Environment & Climate Change Some level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
28. Consumer & Health Protection Early stage Chapter not yet opened
29. Customs Union Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
30. External Relations Good level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy Good level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
32. Financial Control Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions Some level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
34. Institutions Nothing to adopt Chapter not yet opened
35. Other Issues Nothing to adopt Chapter not yet opened
Legend:

  totally incompatible   early stage   considerable efforts needed   some level of preparation   further efforts needed   moderately prepared   no major difficulties expected   good level of preparation   well prepared / well advanced

Negotiation History
Acquis chapter EC Assessment in 2015[69] EC Assessment in 2016[70] EC Assessment in 2018 EC Assessment in 2019[71] EC Assessment in 2020[72] EC Assessment in 2021[73]
1. Free Movement of Goods Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
4. Free Movement of Capital Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
5. Public Procurement Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
6. Company Law Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
7. Intellectual Property Law Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
8. Competition Policy Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
9. Financial Services Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
10. Information Society & Media Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
11. Agriculture & Rural Development Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
13. Fisheries Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation
14. Transport Policy Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
15. Energy Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
16. Taxation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
17. Economic & Monetary Policy Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
18. Statistics Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
19. Social Policy & Employment Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
21. Trans-European Networks Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
24. Justice, Freedom & Security Early stage Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
25. Science & Research Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation
26. Education & Culture Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
27. Environment & Climate Change Early stage Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
28. Consumer & Health Protection Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage
29. Customs Union Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
30. External Relations Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
32. Financial Control Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
34. Institutions Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt
35. Other Issues Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt
Legend:

  totally incompatible   early stage   considerable efforts needed   some level of preparation   further efforts needed   moderately prepared   no major difficulties expected   good level of preparation   well prepared / well advanced

Clusters of negotiating chapters
Clusters Acquis Chapter State of Play Cluster Opened Cluster Closed
Overview Overview 0 out of 34 0 out of 6 0 out of 6
Fundamentals 23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights
24. Justice, Freedom & Security
Economic criteria
Functioning of democratic institutions
Public administration reform
5. Public Procurement
18. Statistics
32. Financial Control
Internal Market 1. Free Movement of Goods
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services
4. Free Movement of Capital
6. Company Law
7. Intellectual Property Law
8. Competition Policy
9. Financial Services
28. Consumer & Health Protection
Competitiveness

and inclusive growth

10. Information Society & Media
16. Taxation
17. Economic & Monetary Policy
19. Social Policy & Employment
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy
25. Science & Research
26. Education & Culture
29. Customs Union
Green agenda

and sustainable connectivity

14. Transport Policy
15. Energy
21. Trans-European Networks
27. Environment
Resources, agriculture

and cohesion

11. Agriculture & Rural Development
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy
13. Fisheries
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions
External relations 30. External Relations
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy
34. Institutions
35. Other Issues

Public opinion

A 2021 poll found that as many as 97% of Albanians are in favour of EU accession. [74]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  2. ^ "EU Leaders Give Final OK To Begin North Macedonia, Albania Membership Talks". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
  3. ^ Dimitrievska, Valentina (23 June 2022). "Albania and North Macedonia remain stuck in EU accession process". bne IntelliNews. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  4. ^ "North Macedonia: Parliament approves deal to start EU bid". Deutsche Welle. 16 July 2022. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  5. ^ Casert, Raf (19 July 2022). "EU starts membership talks with Albania, North Macedonia". Associated Press. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
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Further reading

  • Albania and the European Union: the tumultuous journey towards integration ... By Mirela Bogdani, John Loughlin, 2007
  • Delegation of the European Union to Albania
  • European Commission - Enlargement: Country Profile.
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