EU Battlegroup

EU Battlegroup
Active2005–present
Country European Union
BranchArmy
TypeFramework for creating deployable forces
Part ofCouncil of the European Union
Military unit

An EU Battlegroup (EU BG)[1] is a military unit adhering to the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the European Union (EU). Often based on contributions from a coalition of member states, each of the eighteen Battlegroups consists of a battalion-sized force reinforced with combat support elements (1,500 troops).[2][3] Two of the battlegroups were declared to be capable of being assembled for operational deployment at any one time.

EUBG 2014 II training in Germany.

The Battlegroup initiative reached full operational capacity on 1 January 2007, but, as of August 2019[update], they had yet to see operational service.[4] They were developed from existing ad hoc missions that the European Union (EU) had undertaken.[3] The troops and equipment are drawn from the Member States of the European Union under the direction of a "lead nation". In 2004, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan welcomed the plans and emphasised the value and importance of the Battlegroups in helping the UN deal with troublespots.[5] By 19 March 2022 Bulgaria could announce a multi-national battlegroup, under the auspices of NATO to which the US has agreed to contribute a Stryker unit; the battlegroup commander would be Bulgarian, announced Lloyd Austin, Secretary of the US Department of Defense, and Bulgarian Prime Minister Kiril Petkov.[a]

In light of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Alexander Vershbow, former U.S. ambassador to Russia and former deputy secretary-general of NATO now recommends that the EU Battlegroups (which are currently battalion-sized 1500-troop formations) become larger, heavier, and more permanent formations.[7] The current battlegroup is comparable to the battalion tactical group (BTG) in use in the Russian Army, but which is not as capable[b] of combined arms action, resupply, or maneuver as the 4500-soldier brigade combat team (BCT) of the American army. A BCT is capable of flexible combined arms operation (each 4500-troop BCT fighting as a division in miniature). The American army's security force assistance brigade (SFAB) is another possible formation which could be used as a template for a battlegroup should the need arise, as it was originally conceptualized as a 500-troop senior cadre, to which 4000 junior soldiers could be added in the time of need.

History

It may become possible to update #Further development (2016–present) after NATO Enhanced Forward Presence is updated. See § Alexander Vershbow's recommendation

Background (1999–2005)

The initial idea to create EU multinational roughly battalion-sized combined arms units was first publicly raised at the European Council summit on 10–11 December 1999 in Helsinki. The Council produced the Headline Goal 2003 and specified the need for a rapid response capability that members should provide in small forces at high readiness. The idea was reiterated at a Franco-British summit on 4 February 2003 in Le Touquet which highlighted as a priority the need to improve rapid response capabilities, "including initial deployment of land, sea and air forces within 5–10 days."[10] This was again described as essential in the "Headline Goal 2010".

Operation Artemis in 2003 showed an EU rapid reaction and deployment of forces in a short time scale – with the EU going from Crisis Management Concept to operation launch in just three weeks, then taking a further 20 days for substantial deployment. Its success provided a template for the future rapid response deployments allowing the idea to be considered more practically. The following Franco-British summit in November of that year stated that, building on the experience of the operation, the EU should be able and willing to deploy forces within 15 days in response to a UN request. It called specifically for "Battlegroup sized forces of around 1500 land forces, personnel, offered by a single nation or through a multinational or framework nation force package".

On 10 February 2004, France, Germany and the United Kingdom released a paper outlining the "Battlegroup concept". The document proposed a number of groups based on Artemis that would be autonomous, consisting of about 1500 personnel and deployable within 15 days. These would be principally in response to UN requests at short notice and can be rapidly tailored to specific missions. They would concentrate on bridging operations, preparing the group before a larger force relieved them, for example UN or regional peacekeepers under UN mandate. The plan was approved by all groups in 2004 and in November that year the first thirteen Battlegroups were pledged with associated niche capabilities.[11]

Early development (2005–2015)

Irish Mowag Piranha during an exercise in 2010.

From 1 January 2005 the Battlegroups reached initial operational capacity; full operational capacity was reached on 1 January 2007. Although EU member states were initially highly motivated to volunteer to fill up the roster, the fact that participating member states have to cover their own costs, which especially burdened the smaller states, has made them more reluctant. Besides, many EU member states had simultaneous obligations to fulfill for ISAF and the NATO Response Force, amongst others. This combined with the fact that EU Battlegroups have never been deployed (due to slow political decision-making), despite several occasions in which they according to various experts could or should have been (most notably DR Congo in 2006 and 2008 and Libya in 2011), has led to increasing gaps in the standby roster. Joint funding and actual usage may resolve these issues.[12][13]

Further development (2016–present)

On 23 June 2016, the Brexit Referendum resulted in a vote in favour of the United Kingdom leaving the European Union. Since the UK and France were the largest military powers within the EU, this would mean a serious reduction in forces available for common European defence. On 28 June, High Representative Federica Mogherini presented a new plan, the Global EU Strategy on Security and Foreign Policy, for rigorous further European military integration between the EU member states. These included more cooperation when planning missions, training and exercising soldiers, and the development of a European defence industry. For the EU Battlegroups specifically, the plan aims to remove the obstacles preventing their rapid deployment, such as the lack of a European military headquarters. Although stressing that NATO will remain the most important defence organisation for many EU countries, Mogherini stated that the Union should be able to operate 'autonomously if necessary' on security matters. Referring to the EU's diplomacy and development record, she said that 'Soft power is not enough', and that in a less secure world, especially after Brexit, common action was needed more than ever.[14]

On 14 November 2016, the 56 European Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Defence agreed to the Global EU Strategy on Security and Foreign Policy. This included new possibilities for the rapid deployment of EU Battlegroups with aerial support for civil and military operations in conflict zones outside Europe, for example, before a UN peacekeeping force can arrive. Although Mogherini said the Strategy was 'not a European army' or a 'NATO duplicate', the recent U.S. presidential election of Donald Trump, who had previously implicitly threatened to abandon NATO if its European member states continued to fail in meeting their funding obligations,[15] influenced the European Ministers' decision as well.[16] Besides Brexit and the election of Trump, Russia's military expansionism and the European migrant crisis motivated them as well, making them agree relatively easily, which analysts regarded as a breakthrough.[17]

On 6 March 2017, the foreign and defence ministers agreed to establish a small European command centre in Brussels for military training missions abroad, which could grow out to become a European military 'headquarters' in the future.[18] This Military Planning and Conduct Capability (MPCC) was confirmed and established by the Council of the European Union on 8 June 2017.[19] This came one day after the European Commission launched the European Defence Fund (EDF), comprising €5.5 billion per year, to 'coordinate, supplement and amplify national investments in defence research, in the development of prototypes and in the acquisition of defence equipment and technology'.[20] Until then, the lack of a common military fund had been the main obstacle to the effective operational deployment of the EU Battlegroups.[21][22] An agreement on Permanent Structured Cooperation in Defence (PESCO) was reached at the 22–23 June EU summit in Brussels.[21][22] A June 2017 Eurobarometer opinion poll showed that 75% of Europeans supported a common European security and defence policy, and 55% even favoured a European army.[21] Political leaders such as Dutch PM Mark Rutte commented that a 'European army' was not in the making, however.[22]

Tasks

A Belgian soldier on exercise with the EU Battlegroup in Germany, 2014

The groups are intended to be deployed on the ground within 5–10 days of approval from the Council. It must be sustainable for at least 30 days, which could be extended to 120 days, if resupplied.[23]

The Battlegroups are designed to deal with those tasks faced by the Common Security and Defence Policy, namely the Petersberg tasks (military tasks of a humanitarian, peacekeeping and peacemaking nature).[24]

Planners claim the Battlegroups have enough range to deal with all those tasks, although such tasks ought to be limited in "size and intensity" due to the small nature of the groups. Such missions may include conflict prevention, evacuation, aid deliverance or initial stabilisation. In general these would fall into three categories; brief support of existing troops, rapid deployment preparing the ground for larger forces or small-scale rapid response missions.[25]

Structure

A Battlegroup is considered to be the smallest self-sufficient military unit that can be deployed and sustained in a theatre of operation. EU Battlegroups are composed of approximately 1500 troops; plus command and support services. See § Alexander Vershbow's recommendation

There is no fixed structure, a 'standard' group would include a headquarters company, three infantry companies and corresponding support personnel. Specific units might include mechanised infantry, support groups (e.g. fire or medical support), the combination of which allows independent action by the group on a variety of tasks. The main forces, extra support and "force headquarters" (front line command) are contained within the Battlegroup "package", in addition there is the operation headquarters, located in Europe.[26]

Battlegroups

The initial thirteen Battlegroups[23] were proposed on 22 November 2004. Further battlegroups have joined them since then.

On 23 March 2022, four new battlegroups were expected, for deployment to Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia.[27] Eight battlegroups are to staff the eastern flank of NATO in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria.[28]

Contributions

Larger member states will generally contribute their own Battlegroups, while smaller members are expected to create common groups. Each group will have a 'lead nation' or 'framework nation' which will take operational command, based on the model set up during the EU's peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Operation Artemis). Each group will also be associated with a headquarters. Three non-EU NATO countries, Norway, Turkey, and North Macedonia,[29] participate in a group each, as well as one non-EU non-NATO country, Ukraine.[30][31] Denmark has an opt-out clause in the Treaty of Maastricht and is not obliged to participate in the Common Security and Defence Policy. Also Malta currently does not participate in any Battlegroup.

Participating EU NATO member states
  •  Belgium
  •  Bulgaria
  •  Croatia
  •  Czech Republic
  •  Estonia
  •  France
  •  Germany
  •  Greece
  •  Hungary
  •  Italy
  •  Latvia
  •  Lithuania
  •  Luxembourg
  •  Netherlands
  •  Poland
  •  Portugal
  •  Romania
  •  Slovakia
  •  Slovenia
  •  Spain
Participating EU non-NATO member states
  •  Austria
  •  Cyprus
  •  Finland
  •  Ireland
  •  Sweden
Participating non-EU NATO member states
  •  Norway
  •  Turkey
  •  North Macedonia
Participating non-EU non-NATO member states
  •  Ukraine
  •  Serbia
Non-participating EU member states
  •  Denmark (opt-out)
  •  Malta

Standby roster

It may become possible to update #Standby roster after NATO Enhanced Forward Presence is updated. See § Alexander Vershbow's recommendation

From 1 January 2005 the Battlegroups reached initial operational capacity: at least one Battlegroup was on standby every 6 months. The United Kingdom[32] and France each had an operational Battlegroup for the first half of 2005, and Italy for the second half. In the first half of 2006, a Franco-German Battlegroup operated, and the Spanish–Italian Amphibious Battlegroup. In the second half of that year just one Battlegroup operated composed of France, Germany and Belgium.[citation needed]

Full operational capacity was reached on 1 January 2007, meaning the Union could undertake two Battlegroup sized operations concurrently, or deploy them simultaneously into the same field. The Battlegroups rotate every 6 months, the roster from 2007 onwards is as follows;[33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40]

Standby roster, in which biannual periods I and II are January to June and June to December, respectively
Period Battlegroup Framework Nation Other participants* Force HQ (FHQ) Size
2005 I Coats of arms of None.svg French Battlegroup France Paris
Coats of arms of None.svg British Battlegroup[32] United Kingdom London
II Coats of arms of None.svg Italian Battlegroup Italy Rome
vacant[37]
2006 I Coats of arms of None.svg French–German Battlegroup France Germany Paris
Coat of arms of the Hispano–Italian Amphibious Battle Group.svg Spanish–Italian Amphibious Battlegroup Italy Spain, Greece and Portugal Rome 1500
II Coats of arms of None.svg French–German–Belgian Battlegroup France Germany and Belgium Paris
vacant[37]
2007 I Coats of arms of None.svg French–Belgian Battlegroup France Belgium Paris
Battlegroup 107.jpg Battlegroup 107[35] Germany The Netherlands and Finland Potsdam 1720[41]
II Multinational Land Force.png Multinational Land Force[42] Italy Hungary and Slovenia Udine 1500
Coat of arms of the Balkan Battle Group.svg Balkan Battlegroup[43] Greece Bulgaria, Romania and Cyprus Larissa 1500
2008 I Coat of Arms of the Nordic Battlegroup.svg Nordic Battlegroup (NBG08) Sweden Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Ireland and Norway[44][45] Enköping 1500
Coats of arms of None.svg Spanish-led Battlegroup Spain Germany, France and Portugal Un­known Un­known
II Coats of arms of None.svg French–German Battlegroup France Germany Paris Un­known
Coats of arms of None.svg British Battlegroup United Kingdom London
2009 I Coat of arms of the Hispano–Italian Amphibious Battle Group.svg Spanish–Italian Amphibious Battlegroup Italy Spain, Greece and Portugal Rome 1500
Coat of arms of the Balkan Battle Group.svg Balkan Battlegroup Greece Bulgaria, Romania and Cyprus Un­known 1500
II Czech-Slovak Battlegroup.png Czech–Slovak Battlegroup Czech Republic Slovakia[46] 2500
Coats of arms of None.svg Belgian-led Battlegroup Belgium Luxembourg and France[35] Un­known ???
2010 I Grupa Bojowa I-2010.jpg Battlegroup I-2010[47] Poland Germany, Slovakia, Latvia and Lithuania Międzyrzecz
Coats of arms of None.svg UK–Dutch Battlegroup United Kingdom The Netherlands London 1500
II Coats of arms of None.svg Italian-Romanian-Turkish Battlegroup Italy Romania and Turkey Rome
Coats of arms of None.svg Spain, France, Portugal Un­known Un­known
2011 I Battlegroup 107.jpg Battlegroup 107 (EUBG 2011/1) Netherlands Germany, Finland, Austria and Lithuania Un­known c. 2350[48]
Coat of Arms of the Nordic Battlegroup.svg Nordic Battlegroup (NBG11) Sweden Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Norway[49] and Croatia[50] Enköping 1500
II Coat of arms of Eurofor.svg Eurofor (Eurofor EUBG 2011-2)[51] Portugal Spain, Italy, France Florence
Coat of arms of the Balkan Battle Group.svg Balkan Battlegroup[51] Greece Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus and Ukraine[52] Larissa 1500
2012 I Coats of arms of None.svg French–Belgian–Luxembourgish Battlegroup France Belgium and Luxembourg Mont-Valérien
vacant[37]
II Multinational Land Force.png Multinational Land Force Italy Hungary and Slovenia. Udine
Coats of arms of None.svg German–Czech–Austrian Battlegroup Germany Austria, Czech Republic, Croatia, North Macedonia, Ireland[35] Ulm
2013 I Weimar Battlegroup.jpg Weimar Battlegroup (EU BG I/2013) Poland Germany and France Międzyrzecz
Coats of arms of None.svg Belgium, Luxembourg, France (unconfirmed)[53] Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known
II Coats of arms of None.svg Battlegroup 42[36][54] United Kingdom Lithuania, Latvia, Sweden and the Netherlands London
Coats of arms of None.svg Belgium (unconfirmed)[35] Belgium
2014 I Coat of arms of the Balkan Battle Group.svg Balkan Battlegroup Greece Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus and Ukraine[55]
Coat of arms of None.svg Sweden, Finland (unconfirmed)[37] Sweden
II Coats of arms of None.svg EUBG 2014 II[29] Belgium Germany, Luxembourg, Spain, the Netherlands and North Macedonia 2500–3700
Coat of arms of the Hispano–Italian Amphibious Battle Group.svg Spanish–Italian Amphibious Battlegroup[37] Spain[37] Italy[37]
2015 I Coat of Arms of the Nordic Battlegroup.svg Nordic Battlegroup (NBG15) Sweden Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Ireland[56] France[57]
vacant[37]
II Coats of arms of None.svg French–Belgian Battlegroup France[37] Belgium
vacant[37]
2016 I Visegrad group.png Visegrád Battlegroup[58] Poland Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Ukraine[30][31] Kraków 3700
Coat of arms of the Balkan Battle Group.svg Balkan Battlegroup Greece Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus and Ukraine
II EUBG2016-2.png German–Czech–Austrian Battlegroup[59][60] Germany Austria, the Czech Republic, Croatia, Ireland, Luxembourg and the Netherlands 1500–2500
Coats of arms of None.svg British-led Battlegroup United Kingdom Finland, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden and Ukraine
2017 I Multinational Land Force.png Multinational Land Force Italy Austria, Croatia, Hungary and Slovenia
Coats of arms of None.svg French–Belgian Battlegroup France Belgium
II Coat of arms of the Hispano–Italian Amphibious Battle Group.svg Spanish-led Battlegroup[61] Spain Italy, Portugal Bétera 2500
Multinational Land Force.png Multinational Land Force Italy Austria, Croatia, Hungary and Slovenia
2018 I Coat of arms of the Balkan Battle Group.svg Balkan Battlegroup Greece Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus and Ukraine
Coats of arms of None.svg Benelux Battlegroup Netherlands Austria, Belgium, and Luxembourg
II Coats of arms of None.svg Benelux Battlegroup Netherlands Austria, Belgium, Germany and Luxembourg 2500–3700
vacant
2019 I Coats of arms of None.svg Spanish-led Battlegroup Spain Italy, Portugal
Coats of arms of None.svg French–Belgian Battlegroup[62] France Belgium Mont Valérien
II Visegrad group.png Visegrád Battlegroup[30][63] Poland Hungary, Czechia, Slovakia and Croatia Kraków 2250
Coats of arms of None.svg French-led Battlegroup[62] France Mont Valérien
2020 I Coat of arms of the Balkan Battle Group.svg Balkan Battlegroup Greece Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus, Ukraine and Serbia
vacant
II Coats of arms of None.svg German-Czech-Austrian Battlegroup Germany Austria, Czechia, Croatia, Finland, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands and Sweden Ulm 4100
Coats of arms of None.svg Italian-led Battlegroup Italy Greece, Spain
2021 I Coats of arms of None.svg Battlegroup Name Country City HQ Size
Coats of arms of None.svg Battlegroup Name Country City HQ Size
II vacant Country City HQ Size
Coats of arms of None.svg Battlegroup Name Country City HQ Size
2022 I Coats of arms of None.svg Battlegroup Name Country City HQ Size
Coats of arms of None.svg Battlegroup Name Country City HQ Size
II Coats of arms of None.svg Battlegroup Name Country City HQ Size


There are plans to extend the concept to air and naval forces, although not to the extent of having a single standing force on standby, but scattered forces which could be rapidly assembled.[64][citation needed]

Recurring formations

Niche capabilities

The following Member States have also offered niche capabilities in support of the EU Battlegroups:[65]

  • Cyprus (medical group)
  • Lithuania (a water purification unit)
  • Greece (the Athens Sealift Co-ordination Centre)
  • France (structure of a multinational and deployable Force Headquarters)

Further details on specific contributions

Nordic Battlegroup sniper training at Kilworth, Ireland
  • Sweden and Finland announced the creation of a joint Nordic Battlegroup. To make up the required 1500 number, they also urged Norway to contribute to the Battlegroup despite that country not being part of the EU. Recently, the number has been raised to 2400 troops with Sweden providing 2000 of these. According to Swedish newspapers the price for the 6 months in 2008 was 1.2 billion Swedish kronor (app. 150,000,000 euros) and the Battlegroup was not used.[66]
  • Finland is expected to commit troops trained to combat chemical and biological weapons, among other units such as a mortar company.
  • Lithuania is expected to offer experts in water purification.
  • Greece is pledging troops with maritime transport skills.
  • Ireland has offered bomb disposal experts among its contribution.

The Battlegroups project is not to be confused[citation needed] with the projected Helsinki Headline Goal force, which concerns up to 60,000 soldiers, deployable for at least a year, and take one to two months to deploy. The Battlegroups are instead meant for more rapid and shorter deployment in international crises, probably preparing the ground for a larger and more traditional force to replace them in due time.

Western Balkans Battlegroup proposal

In 2010, a group of experts from the Belgrade Centre for Security Policy proposed the establishment of a Western Balkans Battlegroup by 2020. In a policy vision titled "Towards a Western Balkans Battlegroup: A vision of Serbia's Defence Integration into the EU 2010-2020",[67] they argued that the creation of such a Battlegroup would not only be an accelerating factor in the accession of the former Yugoslav republics into the EU, but also a strong symbolic message of reconciliation and security community reconstruction after the devastating wars of the 1990s. Furthermore, the authors of the study argued that such a Western Balkan Battlegroup, notwithstanding all the political challenges, would have a very high linguistic, cultural and military interoperability. Although decision makers initially showed a weak interest in the Western Balkans Battlegroup, the idea has recently reappeared in the parliamentary discussions in Serbia.[68]

Exercises

Dutch artillery exercise in Grafenwoehr, Germany, 2014

In 2008, the EU Battlegroup conducted wargames to protect the first-ever free elections in the imaginary country of Vontinalys.[69] In June 2014, EUBG 2014 II with 3,000 troops from Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg, North Macedonia, the Netherlands and Spain conducted a training exercise in the Ardennes, codenamed 'Quick Lion', to prevent ethnic violence between the "Greys" and the "Whites" in the imaginary country of "Blueland".[70][71]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "No one can defend themselves alone. Our security lies with the collective security with our allies within NATO," Lloyd Austin said. [6]
  2. ^ On 2-3 March 2022 a Russian battalion tactical group (BTG) was routed by Ukrainian troops and volunteers; the local residents of Voznesensk constructed defenses to funnel BTG vehicles into locations where they could be destroyed in structured ambushes; Russian troops abandoned nearly two-thirds of their tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, multiple-rocket launchers and trucks in Voznesensk.[8][9]

References

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  2. ^ "The EU Battlegroups and the EU civilian and military cell" (PDF). European Union Factsheet. European Council. February 2005. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  3. ^ a b Paul Reynolds (15 March 2007). "New force behind EU foreign policy". BBC News. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  4. ^ "Charlemagne" (columnist) (13 January 2013). "Europe in a foreign field". The Economist. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  5. ^ Deaglan De Breadun (15 October 2004). "Value of EU 'battlegroup' plan stressed by Annan". The Irish Times. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  6. ^ David Vergun (19 March 2022) Bulgaria Stands Up Multinational Battle Group
  7. ^ Robert Burns, The Associated Press (15 Mar 2022) Ukraine war may lead to rethinking of US defense of Europe
  8. ^ Sravasti Dasgupta (17 Mar 2022) Ukrainian soldiers and volunteers defeated larger Russian force in strategically important town, report claims
  9. ^ Journal, Yaroslav Trofimov / Photographs by Manu Brabo for The Wall Street (16 March 2022). "A Ukrainian Town Deals Russia One of the War's Most Decisive Routs". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  10. ^ Landstrom 2007, p. 9.
  11. ^ Landstrom 2007, pp. 9–12.
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  26. ^ Landstrom 2007, pp. 15–16.
  27. ^ OLAFIMIHAN OSHIN (23 March 2022} NATO chief expects new battle groups in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia
  28. ^ Ellie Kaufman and Barbara Starr, CNN (23 March 2022) NATO alliance is "absolutely at risk" because of Putin’s war in Ukraine, officials say
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  42. ^ Also known as the Italian–Hungarian–Slovenian Battlegroup.
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  47. ^ Also known as the Polish-led Battlegroup.
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Bibliography

Further reading

  • Balossi-Restelli, L.M., 2011. Fit for what? Explaining Battlegroup inaction. European security, 20 (2), 155–184. doi: 10.1080/09662839.2011.564767
  • Gowan, R., 2009. The case of the missing Battlegroups: Is EU-UN military cooperation in decline? Studia diplomatica, LXII (3), 53–61.
  • Yf Reykers, "No supply without demand: explaining the absence of the EU Battlegroups in Libya, Mali and the Central African Republic," European Security Volume 25, 2016 - Issue 3.
  • Reykers, Y., 2016. Hurry up and wait: EU Battlegroups and a UN rapid reaction force [online]. Global Peace Operations Review. (http://peaceoperationsreview.org/thematic-essays/hurry-up-and-wait-eu-battlegroups-and-a-un-rapid-reaction-force/)

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