European Commissioner

Member of the EU Commission; heads a government ministry

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  • Treaty of Paris (1951)
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Treaties of accession
1972, 1979, 1985, 1994, 2003, 2005, 2011

Treaties of succession
1984, 2020

Other treaties
  • Schengen Agreement (1985)
  • European Economic Area Agreement (1992)

Abandoned treaties and agreements
Executive institutions
European Council

European Commission

Council of the EU
 Czech Republic
(July–December 2022)

Configurations


European Parliament
(Members)

Judicial institutions
Economic and monetary institutions
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Other bodies
European Investment Bank Group
  • Investment Bank
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European Stability Mechanism
  • European Stability Mechanism

European University Institute
  • European University Institute

Unified Patent Court
  • Unified Patent Court


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Inter-institutional bodies
Euratom members
  •  Austria
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Associated states
  •  Switzerland
  •  United Kingdom

Euratom since 1 January 2021
Eurozone members
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Eurogroup



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Non Euro countries relationship to Euro
Eurozone since 2015
Schengen Area
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  •  Lithuania
  •  Luxembourg
  •  Malta
  •  Netherlands
  •  Poland
  •  Portugal
  •  Slovakia
  •  Slovenia
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  •  Sweden

Non-EU members
  •  Iceland
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  •  Switzerland


Non-Schengen Area states
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Schengen Area since 2015
European Economic Area
EEA members
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  • Romania Romania
  • Slovakia Slovakia
  • Slovenia Slovenia
  • Spain Spain
  • Sweden Sweden

Non-EU members
  •  Iceland
  •  Liechtenstein
  •  Norway

Topics
European Economic Area
  • 1979, 1984, 1989, 1994
    1999, 2004, 2009, 2014
  • 2019 (last election)
  • European political parties
  • Constituencies

Elections in EU member states
  • Austria Austria
  • Belgium Belgium
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  • Croatia Croatia
  • Cyprus Cyprus
  • Czech Republic Czech Republic
  • Denmark Denmark
  • Estonia Estonia
  • Finland Finland
  • France France
  • Germany Germany
  • Greece Greece
  • Hungary Hungary
  • Republic of Ireland Ireland
  • Italy Italy
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  • Lithuania Lithuania
  • Luxembourg Luxembourg
  • Malta Malta
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  • Poland Poland
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Law
Policies and issues
  • Josep Borrell


Foreign relations of EU member states



  • G7
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Defunct bodies
flag European Union portal
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A European Commissioner is a member of the 27-member European Commission. Each member within the Commission holds a specific portfolio. The commission is led by the President of the European Commission. In simple terms they are the equivalent of government ministers.

Appointment

Commissioners are nominated by member states in consultation with the commission president, who then selects a team of commissioners. This team of nominees are then subject to hearings at the European Parliament, which questions them and then votes on their suitability as a whole. If members of the team are found to be inappropriate, the president must then reshuffle the team or request a new candidate from the member state or risk the whole commission being voted down.[citation needed] As parliament cannot vote against individual commissioners there is usually a compromise whereby the worst candidates are removed but minor objections are put aside, or dealt with by adjusting portfolios, so the commission can take office. Once the team is approved by the parliament, it is formally put into office by the European Council (TEU Article 17:7).[citation needed]

Although members of the commission are allocated between member states, they do not represent their states. Instead, they are supposed to act in European interests. Normally, a member state will nominate someone of the same political party as that which forms the current government. There are exceptions, such as Member of the Commission Richard Burke (of Fine Gael), who was nominated by Taoiseach Charles Haughey (of Fianna Fáil). In the past, when the larger states had two seats, they often went to the two major parties, such as in the United Kingdom.

12 of the current 27 Members are women. Peter Mandelson (2004 to October 2008)[1] was the first openly gay Commissioner. The first female Commissioners were Christiane Scrivener and Vasso Papandreou in the 1989 Delors Commission.

European Parliament President Jerzy Buzek proposed in 2010 that Commissioners be directly elected, by member states placing their candidate at the top of their voting lists in European elections. That would give them individually, and the body as a whole, a democratic mandate.[2]

Oath

Each Member is required to take an oath before the Court of Justice of the European Union, officially the Solemn Declaration before the Court of Justice of the European Union. As of December 2009, the Charter of Fundamental Rights has gained legal force and Justice Commissioner Viviane Reding has proposed that Commissioners should swear to uphold it also. The second Barroso Commission went to the Court of Justice on 3 May 2010 for the first such oath alongside their usual oath.[3] The oath taken by the members of the Barroso Commission is below:[4]

Having been appointed as a Member of the European Commission by the European Council, following the vote of consent by the European Parliament I solemnly undertake: to respect the Treaties and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union in the fulfilment of all my duties; to be completely independent in carrying out my responsibilities, in the general interest of the Union; in the performance of my tasks, neither to seek nor to take instructions from any Government or from any other institution, body, office or entity; to refrain from any action incompatible with my duties or the performance of my tasks. I formally note the undertaking of each Member State to respect this principle and not to seek to influence Members of the Commission in the performance of their tasks. I further undertake to respect, both during and after my term of office, the obligation arising therefrom, and in particular the duty to behave with integrity and discretion as regards the acceptance, after I have ceased to hold office, of certain appointments or benefits.

History

Until 2004, the larger member states (Spain upwards) received two Commissioners and the smaller states received one. As the size of the body was increasing with enlargement, the larger states lost their second commissioner after the 2004 enlargement with the new Barroso Commission being appointed under the Treaty of Nice.

Nice also specified that once the number of members reached 27 then the number of Commissioners should be reduced to "less than the number of Member States". The exact number of Commissioners would have to be decided by a unanimous vote of the European Council and membership will rotate equally between member states. Following the accession of Romania and Bulgaria in January 2007, this clause took effect for the following commission (appointed after the 2009 European elections).[5]

The failed European Constitution first mandated that the number of Commissioners should equal two-thirds of the member states. This could be changed by a vote in the European Council, in case the number was still too high in the future. The Constitution failed ratification but this change was brought in with the Treaty of Lisbon. However, as Lisbon was being ratified the Irish electorate voted against it with one reason being the fear of losing a Commissioner. The Irish then voted again, in favour for the treaty on a number of conditions; one being that they kept their commissioner.

In 2009, in what was known as the 26+1 formula, it was proposed that (in order to comply with the Nice Treaty provision that there should be fewer commissioners than members) instead of a commissioner one member state should fill the post of High Representative.[6] An idea floated in 2007 was the creation of junior members for smaller states.[7] In 2004, there was a proposal to create a "super-commissioner" who would be vice president of the Commission and would "be able to intervene in all decisions concerning EU projects that have an impact" on the economic performance of the EU.[8]

Another change Lisbon brought, as hinted above, was the creation of the role of High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy by merging the post of European Commissioner for External Relations with the council's High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy. The new more powerful High Representative became ex-officio Vice-President of the Commission and would chair the Council of the European Union when Foreign Ministers were meeting.[9][10]

Accountability

In addition to its role in approving a new Commission, the European Parliament has the power at any time to force the entire Commission to resign through a vote of no confidence. This requires a vote that makes up at least two-thirds of those voting and a majority of the total membership of the Parliament. While it has never used this power, it threatened to use it against the Commission headed by Jacques Santer in 1999 over allegations of corruption. In response, the Santer Commission resigned en masse of its own accord, the only time a Commission has done so.

Salaries

A Commissioner's basic monthly salary is fixed at 112.5% of the top civil service grade. This works out at €22,367.04 per month.[11][12] The President is paid at 138% (€27,436.90 per month), vice-presidents at 125% (€24,852.26 per month)[11] and the High Representative at 130% (€25,846.35 per month).[11] There are further allowances on top of these figures, including household allowance, child allowance, and a substantial expatriation allowance (where applicable).[11]

Portfolios

The make up and distribution of portfolios are determined by the Commission President and do not always correspond with the commission's departments (Directorates-General). While some have been fairly consistent in make up between each Commission, some have only just been created or are paired with others. With a record number of Members in 2007, the portfolios have become very thin even though the responsibilities of the commission have increased.[13]

Civil service

A Commissioner can come under a great deal of influence from the staff under their control. The European Civil Service is permanent whereas a Commissioner is in office usually for just five years. Hence it is the service which know the workings of the commission and have longer term interests. Strong leadership from a Commissioner, who knows the workings of their portfolio, can overcome the power of the service. An example would be Pascal Lamy; however, the best people are usually kept by their national governments, leading to less solid candidates getting the job.[14]

Politicisation

Margot Wallström has said that the EU has to get more political and controversial.

Commissioners are required to remain above national politics while exercising their duties in the Commission, but are normally involved in their European-level political party. However the requirement to keep out of national politics has slowly been eroded.[citation needed] During the Prodi Commission, Anna Diamantopoulou (Employment and Social Affairs) took leave from the commission to participate in the 2004 Greek elections and resigned when she won a seat despite her party losing. Romano Prodi campaigned in the 2001 Italian elections while still president.[15]

Louis Michel (Development & Humanitarian Aid) announced that he would go on unpaid leave to take part in the 2007 Belgian elections.[16] Although he positioned himself so as not to be elected, the European Parliament's development committee asked the Parliament's legal service to assess if his participation violated the treaties.[17] Michel claimed that politicisation of this manner is part of reconnecting the Union with its citizens. The Commission revised its code of conduct for Commissioners allowing them to "be active members of political parties or trade unions". To participate in an election campaign they are required to "withdraw from the work of the Commission for the duration of the campaign".

This does throw their independence in doubt, where a politician leaves their national scene for one or two terms and returns to it for a new job.[18] Most in essence owe their positions to nomination and support from national party leaders and parties they have been aligned to; usually seeking to return to the party-political fray.[19]

Politicisation has even gone so far as commissioners backing national candidates, with Neelie Kroes (Competition) backing Angela Merkel in the 2005 German elections and Margot Wallström (Institutional Relations & Communication Strategy) backing Ségolène Royal in the 2007 French elections.[15] Wallström defended this claiming that the EU has to get more political and controversial as being a vital role in communicating the commission.[20] Wallström has been notable for engaging in debate and politics, she was the first commissioner to start her own blog Archived 15 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine.

However their political nature can also cause problems in their habit of leaving the job early in the final years of the commission to take up new national posts. In seeking to secure their post-Commission job, they can undermine the work of the commission.[21] Following elections in Cyprus, Commissioner Kyprianou left to become Cypriot Foreign Minister.[22] Likewise, Commissioner Frattini left to do the same following elections in Italy.[23] During the previous Prodi Commission, Pedro Solbes left to become the Spanish finance minister, Michel Barnier left to become French foreign minister, Erkki Liikanen left to become head of Bank of Finland and Anna Diamantopoulou also resigned early. Even President Prodi started campaigning in the Italian elections before his term as head of the commission was over.[21]

Appointment to the commission has the effect of removing a political figure from a country for a period of years, and this has been compared to the ancient Athenian practice of ostracism.[24]

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Commissioners of the European Union.

References

  1. ^ [1] Archived 31 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine BBC: 'Proud' Mandelson back in [UK] cabinet
  2. ^ Mahony, Honor (23 March 2010) EP president suggests election of future EU commissioners Archived 25 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine, EU Observer
  3. ^ Reding says member states 'must show' they're applying EU charter Archived 20 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ [2] Archived 18 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine EU commission: Wording of the oath.
  5. ^ See the attached Protocol, Article 4
  6. ^ Smyth, Jamie (5 September 2009). "Rejection may undermine EU's effectiveness, warns Swedish premier". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2009.
  7. ^ EU divided by plan for ‘second-class’ commissioners Archived 1 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine ft.com 7 January 2007
  8. ^ "'Big three' strike deal on super commissioner, French VAT cuts, 1% ceiling". 19 February 2005. Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  9. ^ "The Union's institutions: Commission". Europa (web portal). Archived from the original on 19 August 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2007.
  10. ^ Council of the European Union (20 June 2007). "Brussels European Council 21/22 June 2007: Presidency Conclusions" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 June 2007. Retrieved 22 June 2007.
  11. ^ a b c d "Council Regulation (EU) 2016/300 of 29 February 2016 determining the emoluments of EU high-level public office holders". Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  12. ^ Base salary of grade 16, third step is €19,881.81: "2017 Annual update of the remuneration and pensions of the officials and other servants of the European Union and the correction coefficients applied thereto". Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  13. ^ Prodi to Have Wide, New Powers as Head of the European Commission Archived 27 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine iht.com 16 April 1999
  14. ^ Former EU Mandarin Spills the Beans on Commission Intrigue Archived 23 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine Deutsche Welle
  15. ^ a b EU commissioner backs Royal in French election Archived 10 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine euobserver.com
  16. ^ Commissioner Louis Michel to stand in the Belgian parliamentary elections Archived 29 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine europa.eu
  17. ^ "POLITICO – European Politics, Policy, Government News". Archived from the original on 23 September 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
  18. ^ Hix, Simon (1999) "The political system of the European Union" MacMillan, Basingstoke, p5
  19. ^ Hix Simon (1999) "The political system of the European Union". p5
  20. ^ Brussels struggles with communication policy Archived 23 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine euobserver.com 9 May 2007
  21. ^ a b Mahony, Honor (4 March 2008). "EU commission musical chairs begins in Brussels". EU Observer. Archived from the original on 10 March 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008.
  22. ^ Latham, Mark (10 April 2008). "Parliament backs Vassiliou as health commissioner". European Voice. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2008.
  23. ^ Igra, Daniel (15 April 2008). "Berlusconi victory confirms Frattini's departure". European Voice. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 15 April 2008.
  24. ^ Cartledge, Paul (July 2006). "Ostracism: selection and de-selection in ancient Greece". History & Policy. United Kingdom: History & Policy. Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2010.

External links

  • Commission's website ec.europa.eu
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European Commission (1958–1962: First Hallstein Commission)
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Barroso Commission I (2004–2009)
1 = President. 2 = Vice President. 3 = Served from 1 January 2007. 4 = Vassiliou replaced Kyprianou on 3 March 2008. 5 = Tajani replaced Frattini on 18 June 2008. 6 = Ashton replaced Mandelson on 3 October 2008. 7 = Šemeta replaced Grybauskaitė on 1 July 2009. 8 = Samecki replaced Hübner on 4 July 2009. 9 = De Gucht replaced Michel on 17 July 2009. 10 = Šefčovič replaced Figeľ on 1 October 2009.
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Barroso Commission II (2009–2014)
Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
  • Catherine Ashton1 (2010–14)
Jose Manuel Barroso, 12th President of the European Commission
Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship
  • Viviane Reding2 (2010–2014)
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    European Union Presidents of the European Commission
    • Jean Monnet (Monnet Authority, 1952–55)
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