European People's Party Group

European Parliament political group

European People's Party Group
European Parliament group
Logo of the European People's Party in the European Parliament
NameEuropean People's Party Group
English abbr.EPP
(22 June 2009 to present)
Older:
  • EPP-ED[1]
    (20 July 1999[2] to 22 June 2009)
  • EPP[1]
    (17 July 1979[3] to 20 July 1999[2])
  • CD[2]
    (23 June 1953[3] to 17 July 1979[3])
French abbr.PPE
(22 June 2009 to present)
Older:
  • PPE-DE[4]
    (20 July 1999[2] to 22 June 2009)
  • PPE[3]
    (17 July 1979[3] to 20 July 1999[2])
  • DC[3]
    (23 June 1953[3] to 17 July 1979[3])
Formal nameGroup of the European People's Party (Christian Democrats)
(22 June 2009 to present)
Older:
  • Group of the European People's Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats[4][5][6]
    (20 July 1999[2] to 22 June 2009)
  • Group of the European People's Party (Christian-Democratic Group)[3][7][8][9]
    (17 July 1979[3] to 20 July 1999[2])
  • Christian Democratic Group (Group of the European People's Party)[3][9]
    (14 March 1978[3] to 17 July 1979[3])
  • Christian Democratic Group[2][9]
    (23 June 1953[3] to 14 March 1978[3])
Ideology
  • Christian democracy[10][11]
  • Conservatism[11]
  • Liberal conservatism[10]
  • Pro-Europeanism
Political positionCentre-right[12][13]
European parties
From
  • 11 September 1952
    (unofficially)[14]
  • 23 June 1953
    (officially)[14]
Topresent
Chaired byManfred Weber[15]
MEP(s)
176 / 705
Websitewww.eppgroup.eu

The European People's Party Group (EPP Group) is a centre-right political group of the European Parliament consisting of deputies (MEPs) from the member parties of the European People's Party (EPP). Sometimes it also includes independent MEPs and/or deputies from unaffiliated national parties.[16][17][18] The EPP Group comprises politicians of Christian-democratic, conservative and liberal-conservative orientation.[19][20][21]

The European People's Party was officially founded as a European political party in 1976. However, the European People's Party Group in the European Parliament has existed in one form or another since June 1953, from the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community, making it one of the oldest European-level political groups. It has been the largest political group in the European Parliament since 1999.

History

The Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community (the predecessor of the present day European Parliament) first met on 10 September 1952[22] and the first Christian Democratic Group was unofficially formed the next day, with Maan Sassen as president.[14][23] The group held 38 of the 78 seats, two short of an absolute majority.[14][24] On 16 June 1953 the Common Assembly passed a resolution[25] enabling the official formation of political groups, and on 23 June 1953 the constituent declaration[26] of the group was published and the group was officially formed.[14][24]

EPP share of votes in elections to the Eur. Parliament 1999–2019

The Christian Democrat group was the biggest group at formation, but as time wore on, it lost support and was the second-biggest group by the time of the 1979 elections. As the European Community expanded into the European Union, the dominant centre-right parties in the new member states were not necessarily Christian democratic, and the EPP (European People's Party, the pan-continental political party founded in 1976, to which all group members are now affiliated) feared being sidelined.[27] To counter this, the EPP expanded its remit to cover the centre-right regardless of tradition and pursued a policy of integrating liberal-conservative parties.[27]

This policy led to Greek New Democracy and Spanish People's Party MEPs joining the EPP Group.[27] The British Conservative Party and Danish Conservative People's Party tried to maintain a group of their own, named the European Democrats (ED), but lack of support and the problems inherent in maintaining a small group forced ED's collapse in the 1990s, and its members crossed the floor to join the EPP Group.[27] The parties of these MEPs also became full members of the EPP (with the exception of the British Conservative Party, which did not join) and this consolidation process of the European centre-right continued during the 1990s with the acquisition of members from the Italian party Forza Italia. However, the consolidation was not unalloyed and a split emerged with the Eurosceptic MEPs who congregated in a subgroup within the Group, also called the European Democrats (ED).

Nevertheless, the consolidation held through the 1990s, assisted by the group being renamed the European People's Party – European Democrats (EPP-ED) Group, and after the 1999 European elections the EPP-ED reclaimed its position as the largest group in the Parliament from the Party of European Socialists (PES) Group.

Size was not enough, however: the group did not have a majority. It continued therefore to engage in the Grand Coalition (a coalition with the PES Group, or occasionally the Liberals) to generate the majorities required by the cooperation procedure under the Single European Act.

Meanwhile, the parties in the European Democrats subgroup were growing restless, with the establishment in July 2006 of the Movement for European Reform,[28] and finally left following the 2009 elections, when the Czech Civic Democratic Party and British Conservative Party formed their own right-wing European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) group on 22 June 2009, abolishing the European Democrats subgroup from that date. The EPP-ED Group reverted to its original name – the EPP Group – immediately.

In the 7th European Parliament the EPP Group remains the largest parliamentary group with 275 MEPs. It is currently the only political group in the European parliament to fully represent its corresponding European political party, i.e. the European People's Party. The United Kingdom was the only member state to not be represented in the group; this state of affairs ceased temporarily on 28 February 2018, when two MEPs suspended from the British Conservative Party left the ECR group and joined the EPP.[29][non-primary source needed] The two MEPs later joined a breakaway political party in the UK, The Independent Group.[30]

After twelve member parties in the EPP called for Hungary's Fidesz's expulsion or suspension, Fidesz's membership was suspended with a common agreement on 20 March 2019.[31][32] The suspension was applied only to the EPP but not to its group in the Parliament.[33] On 3 March 2021, Fidesz decided to leave the EPP group, after the group's new rules, however still kept their membership in the party.[34][35] On 18 March 2021, Fidesz decided to leave the European People's Party.[36]

Logo of European People's Party Group from 1999 to 2015.

Membership at formation

The 38 members in the group on 11 September 1952 were as follows:


Member state

MEPs

Party

MEPs

Notes

Sources
Belgium 5 Christian Social Party 5
  • Théodore Lefevre
  • Paul Struye
  • Pierre Wigny
  • Pierre De Smet
  • Alfred Bertrand
[22][37]
France 5 Christian People's Party (Saar) 2
  • Franz Singer
  • Erwin Mueller
[22][37]
Republican People's Movement 3 [22][37]
Germany 8 Christian Democratic Union
and Christian Social Union
7 [22][37]
Federal Union Party 1
  • Helmut Bertram
[22][37]
Italy 12 Christian Democracy 12
  • Pietro Campilli
  • Antonio Azara
  • Lodovico Benvenuti
  • Mario Cingolani
  • Francesco Dominedo
  • Lodovico Montini
  • Angelo Giacomo Mott
  • Italo Mario Sacco
  • Vinicio Ziino
  • Giuseppe Togni
  • Antonio Boggiano-Pico
  • Armando Sabatini
[22][37]
Luxembourg 2 Christian Social People's Party 2
  • Fernand Loesch
  • Nicolas Margue
[22][37]
Netherlands 6 Anti-Revolutionary Party 2
  • J. A. H. J. S. Bruins Slot
  • W. Rip
[22][37]
Catholic People's Party 3
  • M. A. M. Klompé
  • E. M. J. A. Sassen
  • P. A. Blaisse
[22][37]
Christian Historical Union 1
  • G. Vixseboxe
[22][37]

Structure

Organisation

The EPP Group is governed by a collective (referred to as the Presidency) that allocates tasks. The Presidency consists of the Group Chair and a maximum of ten Vice-Chairs, including the Treasurer. The day-to-day running of the EPP Group is performed by its secretariat in the European Parliament, led by its Secretary-General. The Group runs its own think-tank, the European Ideas Network, which brings together opinion-formers from across Europe to discuss issues facing the European Union from a centre-right perspective.

The EPP Group Presidency includes:

Name Position Sources
Manfred Weber Chair [38]
Arnaud Danjean Vice-Chair [39]
Frances Fitzgerald Vice-Chair [39]
Esteban González Pons Vice-Chair [39]
Rasa Juknevičienė Vice-Chair [39]
Esther de Lange Vice-Chair [39]
Vangelis Meimarakis Vice-Chair [39]
Siegfried Mureşan Vice-Chair [39]
Jan Olbrycht Vice-Chair [39]
Paulo Rangel Vice-Chair [39]
Željana Zovko Vice-Chair [39]

The chairs of the group and its predecessors from 1952 to 2020 are as follows:


From

To

Chair

Member State

National party
1953 1958 Maan Sassen  Netherlands Catholic People's Party
1958 1958 Pierre Wigny  Belgium Christian Social Party
1958 1966 Alain Poher  France Popular Republican Movement
1966 1969 Joseph Illerhaus  West Germany Christian Democratic Union
1969 1975 Hans Lücker  West Germany Christian Democratic Union
1975 1977 Alfred Bertrand  Belgium Christian People's Party
1977 1982 Egon Klepsch  West Germany Christian Democratic Union
1982 1984 Paolo Barbi  Italy Christian Democracy
1984 1992 Egon Klepsch  West Germany/ Germany Christian Democratic Union
1992 1994 Leo Tindemans  Belgium Christian People's Party
1994 1999 Wilfried Martens  Belgium Christian People's Party
1999 2007 Hans-Gert Pöttering  Germany Christian Democratic Union
2007 2014 Joseph Daul  France Union for a Popular Movement
2014 present Manfred Weber  Germany Christian Social Union in Bavaria

Membership

9th European Parliament

The EPP Group has MEPs from each of the 27 member states. The national parties that have Members of the EPP Group are as follows:

Country Party European party MEPs
 Austria Austrian People's Party
Österreichische Volkspartei (ÖVP)
EPP
7 / 19
 Belgium Christian Democratic and Flemish
Christen-Democratisch & Vlaams (CD&V)
EPP
2 / 21
The Committed Ones
Les Engagés (LE)
EPP
1 / 21
Christian Social Party
Christlich Soziale Partei (CSP)
EPP
1 / 21
 Bulgaria Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria
Граждани за европейско развитие на България (GERB)
EPP
5 / 17
Union of Democratic Forces
Съюз на демократичните сили (SDS)
EPP
1 / 17
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria
Демократи за силна България (DSB)
EPP
1 / 17
 Croatia Croatian Democratic Union
Hrvatska demokratska zajednica (HDZ)
EPP
4 / 12
 Cyprus Democratic Rally
Δημοκρατικός Συναγερμός (DISY)
EPP
2 / 6
 Czech Republic Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party
Křesťanská a demokratická unie – Československá strana lidová (KDU–ČSL)
EPP
2 / 21
TOP 09
(TOP 09)
EPP
2 / 21
Mayors and Independents
Starostové a nezávislí (STAN)
None
1 / 21
 Denmark Conservative People's Party
Konservative Folkeparti (KF)
EPP
1 / 14
 Estonia Fatherland
Isamaa
EPP
1 / 7
 Finland National Coalition Party
Kansallinen Kokoomus (KK)
EPP
3 / 14
 France The Republicans
Les Républicains (LR)
EPP
7 / 79
The Centrists
Les Centristes (LC)
None
1 / 79
 Germany Christian Democratic Union
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands (CDU)
EPP
23 / 96
Christian Social Union of Bavaria
Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern e.V. (CSU)
EPP
6 / 96
Family Party of Germany
Familienpartei Deutschlands (FAMILIE)
ECPM
1 / 96
 Greece New Democracy
Νέα Δημοκρατία (ND)
EPP
7 / 21
 Hungary Christian Democratic People's Party
Kereszténydemokrata Néppárt (KDNP)
EPP
1 / 21
 Ireland Fine Gael
Fine Gael (FG)
EPP
5 / 13
 Italy Forward Italy
Forza Italia (FI)
EPP
10 / 76
South Tyrolean People's Party
Südtiroler Volkspartei (SVP)
Partito Popolare Sudtirolese (PPST)
EPP
1 / 76
 Latvia Unity
Vienotība
EPP
2 / 8
 Lithuania Homeland Union
Tėvynės Sąjunga (TS-LKD)
EPP
3 / 11
Aušra Maldeikienė (Independent) Independent
1 / 11
 Luxembourg Christian Social People's Party
Chrëschtlech Sozial Vollekspartei (CSV)
EPP
2 / 6
 Malta Nationalist Party
Partit Nazzjonalista (PN)
EPP
2 / 6
 Netherlands Christian Democratic Appeal
Christen-Democratisch Appèl (CDA)
EPP
5 / 29
Christian Union
ChristenUnie (CU)
ECPM
1 / 29
 Poland Civic Platform
Platforma Obywatelska (PO)
EPP
11 / 52
Polish People's Party
Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe (PSL)
EPP
3 / 52
Janina Ochojska, Magdalena Adamowicz (Independent) Independent
2 / 52
 Portugal Social Democratic Party
Partido Social Democrata (PSD)
EPP
6 / 21
Democratic and Social Centre – People's Party
Centro Democrático e Social – Partido Popular (CDS–PP)
EPP
1 / 21
 Romania National Liberal Party
Partidul Național Liberal (PNL)
EPP
10 / 33
Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania
Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România (UDMR)
EPP
2 / 33
People's Movement Party
Partidul Mișcarea Populară (PMP)
EPP
2 / 33
 Slovakia Christian Democratic Movement
Kresťanskodemokratické Hnutie (KDH)
EPP
2 / 14
TOGETHER – Civic Democracy
SPOLU – občianska demokracia (SPOLU)
EPP
1 / 14
Ordinary People and Independent Personalities
Obyčajní Ľudia a nezávislé osobnosti (OĽaNO)
None
1 / 14
 Slovenia Slovenian Democratic Party
Slovenska Demokratska Stranka (SDS)
EPP
2 / 8
New Slovenia – Christian Democrats
Nova Slovenija – Krščanski demokrati (NSi)
EPP
1 / 8
Slovenian People's Party
Slovenska ljudska stranka (SLS)
EPP
1 / 8
 Spain People's Party
Partido Popular (PP)
EPP
13 / 59
 Sweden Moderate Party
Moderata Samlingspartiet (M)
EPP
4 / 21
Christian Democrats
Kristdemokraterna (KD)
EPP
2 / 21
 European Union
Total
176 / 705

Former members

Country Party European party MEPs
 Hungary Fidesz None
12 / 21
 Netherlands 50PLUS (50+) None
0 / 29

7th and 8th European Parliament

Country Names Names (English) MEPs 2009–14 MEPs 2014–19
 Austria Österreichische Volkspartei Austrian People's Party 6 Decrease 5
 Belgium Dutch: Christen-Democratisch & Vlaams Christian Democratic and Flemish 3 Decrease 2
French: Centre Démocrate Humaniste Humanist Democratic Centre 1 Steady 1
German: Christlich Soziale Partei Christian Social Party* 1 Steady 1
 Bulgaria Граждани за европейско развитие на България
(Grazhdani za Evropeysko Razvitie na Balgariya)
Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria 5 Increase 6
Съюз на демократичните сили
(Sayuz na Demokratichnite Sili)
Union of Democratic Forces 1 Decrease 0
Демократи за силна България
(Demokrati za Silna Balgariya)
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria 1 Steady 1
 Croatia Hrvatska demokratska zajednica Croatian Democratic Union 4 Steady 4
Hrvatska seljačka stranka Croatian Peasant Party 1 Steady 1
 Cyprus Greek: Δημοκρατικός Συναγερμός
(Dimokratikós Sinayermós)
Democratic Rally 2 Decrease 1
 Czech Republic Křesťanská a demokratická unie – Československá strana lidová Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party 2 Increase 3
TOP 09 TOP 09 Increase 3
Starostové a nezávislí Mayors and Independents[40] Increase 1
 Denmark Det Konservative Folkeparti Conservative People's Party 1 Steady 1
 Estonia Erakond Isamaa Pro Patria 1 Steady 1
 Finland Kansallinen Kokoomus National Coalition Party 3 Steady 3
Suomen kristillisdemokraatit Christian Democrats 1 Decrease 0
 France Les Républicains The Republicans 27 Decrease 18
Union des Démocrates et Indépendants Union of Democrats and Independents 6 Decrease 0
Independent Increase 2
 Germany Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands Christian Democratic Union 34 Decrease 29
Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern e.V. Christian Social Union of Bavaria 8 Decrease 5
 Greece Νέα Δημοκρατία
(Néa Dimokratiá)
New Democracy 7 Decrease 5
 Hungary Kereszténydemokrata Néppárt Christian Democratic People's Party 1 Steady 1
 Ireland Fine Gael Fine Gael 4 Steady 4
 Italy Forza Italia Forza Italia 19 Decrease 12
Alternativa Popolare Popular Alternative Increase 1
Unione di Centro Union of the Centre 6 Decrease 1
German: Südtiroler Volkspartei South Tyrolean People's Party 1 Steady 1
 Latvia Vienotība Unity 4 Steady 4
 Lithuania Tėvynės Sąjunga – Lietuvos Krikščionys Demokratai Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats 4 Decrease 2
Independent Increase 1
 Luxembourg Luxembourgish: Chrëschtlech Sozial Vollekspartei
French: Parti Populaire Chrétien Social
German: Christlich Soziale Volkspartei
Christian Social People's Party 3 Steady 3
 Malta Partit Nazzjonalista Nationalist Party 2 Increase 3
 Netherlands Christen-Democratisch Appèl Christian Democratic Appeal 5 Steady 5
 Poland Platforma Obywatelska Civic Platform 25 Decrease 18
Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe Polish People's Party 4 Steady 4
 Portugal Partido Social Democrata Social Democratic Party 8 Decrease 6
Centro Democrático e Social – Partido Popular Democratic and Social Centre – People's Party 2 Decrease 1
 Romania Partidul Național Liberal National Liberal Party 12 Decrease 8
Hungarian: Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség
Romanian: Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România
Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 3 Decrease 2
Partidul Mișcarea Populară People's Movement Party
Independent Increase 2
 Slovakia Kresťanskodemokratické Hnutie Christian Democratic Movement 2 Increase 3
Strana Maďarskej Koalície – Magyar Koalício Pártja Party of the Hungarian Community 2 Decrease 1
Most–Híd Most–Híd Increase 1
Independent Increase 1
 Slovenia Slovenska Demokratska Stranka Slovenian Democratic Party 3 Steady 3
Nova Slovenija – Krščanska Ljudska Stranka New Slovenia – Christian People's Party 1 Steady 1
Slovenska ljudska stranka Slovenian People's Party Increase 1
 Spain Spanish: Partido Popular People's Party 24 Decrease 16
Independent Increase 1
 Sweden Moderata Samlingspartiet Moderate Party 4 Decrease 3
Kristdemokraterna Christian Democrats 1 Steady 1
 United Kingdom Change UK Change UK (defection from Conservative Party/ECR)[41] 0 Increase 1
Renew Party (defection from Conservative Party/ECR)[42] 0 Increase 1
Total 274 219

Activities

In the news

Activities performed by the group in the period between June 2004 and June 2008 include monitoring elections in Palestine[43] and Ukraine;[44] encouraging transeuropean rail travel,[45] telecoms deregulation,[46] energy security,[47] a common energy policy,[48] the accession of Bulgaria and Romania to the Union,[49] partial reform of the CAP[50] and attempts to tackle illegal immigration;[51][52][53] denouncing Russian involvement in South Ossetia;[54][55][56][57][58] supporting the Constitution Treaty[59][60][61] and the Lisbon Treaty;[62][63] debating globalisation,[48][64] relations with China,[65] and Taiwan;[66] backing plans to outlaw Holocaust denial;[67] nominating Anna Politkovskaya for the 2007 Sakharov Prize;[68] expelling Daniel Hannan from the Group;[69] the discussion about whether ED MEPs should remain within EPP-ED or form a group of their own;[70][71][72] criticisms of the group's approach to tackling low turnout for the 2009 elections;[73] the group's use of the two-President arrangement;[74] and the group's proposal to ban the Islamic Burka dress across the EU.

Parliamentary activity profile

Group parliamentary activity profile, 1 August 2004 to 1 August 2008 (see description for sources).
  EPP-ED: 659 motions

The debates and votes in the European Parliament are tracked by its website[75] and categorised by the groups that participate in them and the rule of procedure that they fall into. The results give a profile for each group by category and the total indicates the group's level of participation in Parliamentary debates. The activity profile for each group for the period 1 August 2004 to 1 August 2008 in the Sixth Parliament is given on the diagram on the right. The group is denoted in blue.

The website shows the group as participating in 659 motions, making it the third most active group during the period.[citation needed]

Publications

The group produces many publications, which can be found on its website.[76] Documents produced in 2008 cover subjects such as dialogue with the Orthodox Church, study days, its strategy for 2008–09, Euro-Mediterranean relations, and the Lisbon Treaty. It also publishes a yearbook and irregularly publishes a presentation, a two-page summary of the group.

Academic analysis

The group has been characterised as a three-quarters-male group that, prior to ED's departure, was only 80% cohesive and split between centre-right Europhiles (the larger EPP subgroup) and right-wing Eurosceptics (the smaller ED subgroup). The group as a whole is described as ambiguous on hypothetical EU taxes, against taxation, Green issues, social liberal issues (LGBT rights, abortion, euthanasia) and full Turkish accession to the European Union, and for a deeper Federal Europe, deregulation, the Common Foreign and Security Policy and controlling migration into the EU.

See also

  • conservatism portal

References

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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Political Groups of the European Parliament". Kas.de. Archived from the original on 17 May 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "EPP-ED on Europe Politique". Europe-politique.eu. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
  4. ^ a b "Political Groups Annual Accounts 2001–2006". European Parliament. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
  5. ^ European Parliament archive entry for Hans-Gert Pöttering (incl. Membership)
  6. ^ European Parliament archive entry for Joseph Daul (incl. Membership)
  7. ^ "1979 Constitutive session | 2019 European election results | European Parliament".
  8. ^ "Group names 1999". European Parliament. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
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  10. ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "European Union". Parties and Elections in Europe. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  11. ^ a b Slomp, Hans (26 September 2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 245. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  12. ^ "Hungary's Orban faces exclusion from EU centre-right group". BBC News. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  13. ^ de Carbonnel, Alissa (29 March 2019). "Centre-right to top European Parliament vote, edging out nationalists: poll". Reuters. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  14. ^ a b c d e "EPPED Chronology 02". Epp-ed.eu. Archived from the original on 15 August 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
  15. ^ "Weber elected new EPP leader". Archived from the original on 6 June 2014.
  16. ^ Staab, Andreas (2011). The European Union Explained, Second Edition: Institutions, Actors, Global Impact. Indiana University Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-253-00164-1. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
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