Foreign relations of Estonia

Overview of the foreign relations of Estonia

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Nations with which Estonia has diplomatic relations.

The Republic of Estonia gained its independence from the Russian Empire on 24 February 1918 and established diplomatic relations with many countries via membership of the League of Nations. The forcible incorporation of Estonia into the Soviet Union in 1940 was not generally recognised by the international community and the Estonian diplomatic service continued to operate in some countries. Following the restoration of independence from the Soviet Union, Russia was one of the first nations to re-recognize Estonia's independence (the first country to do so was Iceland on 22 August 1991). Estonia's immediate priority after regaining its independence was the withdrawal of Russian (formerly Soviet) forces from Estonian territory. In August 1994, this was completed. However, relations with Moscow have remained strained primarily because Russia decided not to ratify the border treaty it had signed with Estonia in 1999.

Trends following re-independence

Since regaining independence, Estonia has pursued a foreign policy of close cooperation with Western European nations.

President Toomas Hendrik Ilves and President George W. Bush, in Estonia 2006.

The two most important policy objectives in this regard have been accession into NATO and the European Union, achieved in March and May 2004 respectively. Estonia's international realignment toward the West has been accompanied by a general deterioration in relations with Russia, most recently demonstrated by the controversy surrounding relocation of the Bronze Soldier WWII memorial in Tallinn.[1] Estonia has become an increasingly strong supporter of deepening European integration. The decision to participate in the preparation of a financial transaction tax in 2012 reflects this shift in Estonia's EU policy.[2]

An important element in Estonia's post-independence reorientation has been closer ties with the Nordic countries, especially Finland and Sweden. Indeed, Estonians consider themselves a Nordic people due to being Finnic people like the Finns rather than Balts,[3][4] based on their historical ties with Denmark and particularly Finland and Sweden. In December 1999 Estonian foreign minister (and since 2006, president of Estonia) Toomas Hendrik Ilves delivered a speech entitled "Estonia as a Nordic Country" to the Swedish Institute for International Affairs.[5] In 2003, the foreign ministry also hosted an exhibit called "Estonia: Nordic with a Twist".[6] And in 2005, Estonia joined the European Union's Nordic Battle Group. It has also shown continued interest in becoming a full member in the Nordic Council.

Whereas in 1992 Russia accounted for 92% of Estonia's international trade,[7] today there is extensive economic interdependence between Estonia and its Nordic neighbors: three-quarters of foreign investment in Estonia originates in the Nordic countries (principally Finland and Sweden), to which Estonia sends 42% of its exports (as compared to 6.5% going to Russia, 8.8% to Latvia, and 4.7% to Lithuania). On the other hand, the Estonian political system, its flat rate of income tax, and its non-welfare-state model distinguish it from the other Nordic states, and indeed from many other European countries.[8]

Estonia is a party to 181 international organizations, including the BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (member since 1 May 2004), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, International Maritime Organization, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, NATO, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO.

International disputes

Territorial issues between Estonia and Russia

Estonian President Kersti Kaljulaid with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Moscow on 18 April 2019

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union Estonia had hoped for the return of more than 2,000 square kilometers of territory annexed to Russia after World War II in 1945. The annexed land had been within the borders Estonia approved by Russia in the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty. However, the Boris Yeltsin government disavowed any responsibility for acts committed by the Soviet Union.

After signing the border treaty by the corresponding foreign minister in 2005, it was ratified by the Estonian government and president. The Russian side interpreted the preamble as giving Estonia a possibility for future territorial claim, and Vladimir Putin notified Estonia that Russia will not consider these. Negotiations were reopened in 2012 and the Treaty was signed in February 2014. Ratification is still pending.[9]

Diplomatic relationships

Estonia foreign minister Marina Kaljurand meeting Iranian foreign minister Mohammad Javad Zarif, 12 April 2016

Estonia established diplomatic relations with Kazakhstan on 27 May 1992. Estonia is represented in Kazakhstan through its embassy in Nur-Sultan.[10]

Uruguay was among the countries that refused to recognize the Soviet occupation of the Baltic countries. Uruguay re-recognised Estonia's independence on 28 August 1991. Estonia and Uruguay established diplomatic relations on 30 September 1992. Estonia is represented in Uruguay through an honorary consulate in Montevideo. Uruguay is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Helsinki (Finland) and an honorary consulate in Tallinn.[11]

Through diplomatic cooperation with Latvia, Estonia opened an embassy in Cairo, Egypt in March 2010[12] as settled in an agreement signed by Estonian Foreign Ministry Secretary General Marten Kokk and the Ambassador of the Republic of Latvia Kārlis Eihenbaums on 5 January.

Foreign minister Urmas Paet established diplomatic relations with the government in Myanmar in September 2012, following the 2011–2012 Burmese political reforms.[13][14]

As of March 2015, after establishing relations with Tonga, Estonia had still not established diplomatic relations with nine countries: Bhutan, Yemen, Sudan, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, North Korea, Papua New Guinea, Swaziland (since 2018 renamed to Eswatini), and Chad.[15]

In October 2016, Estonian Ambassador to Australia Andres Unga established diplomatic relations with Papua New Guinea.[16]

In January 2018, Foreign Minister Sven Mikser established diplomatic relations with Sudan.[17]

In July 2018, Estonian Ambassador to the UN Sven Jürgenson established diplomatic relations between Estonia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[18]

In September 2018, Mikser established diplomatic relations with Chad.[19]

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Egypt 1937
 Ethiopia 23 August 2005[20]
  • Estonia has an embassy office in Addis Ababa.[21]
  • Ethiopia is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
 Lesotho 2012

Both countries established diplomatic relations in September 2012.[22]

  • Estonia does not have an accreditation to Lesotho.
  • Lesotho does not have an accreditation to Estonia.
 Morocco 22 June 1992
  • Estonia is accredited to Morocco from its embassy in Lisbon, Portugal.
  • Morocco is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
 South Africa
  • Estonia does not have an accredited to South Africa.
  • South Africa is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 27 September 1991
  • Argentina is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Estonia does not have an accreditation to Argentina.
 Belize 5 May 1999
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 May 1999.[23]
  • Belize does not have an accreditation to Estonia.
  • Estonia does not have an accreditation to Belize.
 Bolivia 8 September 1992
  • Bolivia is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Estonia does not have an accreditation to Bolivia.
 Brazil September 1991
  • Brazil has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Estonia is accredited to Brazil from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tallinn.
 Canada 1922
  • Canada has an embassy office in Tallinn.[24]
  • Estonia has an embassy in Ottawa.[25]
 Chile 22 September 1921 See Chile–Estonia relations

Chile first recognized Estonia on 22 September 1921. Chile re-recognised Estonia on 28 August 1991 and diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on 27 September 1991. An agreement on visa-free travel between Estonia and Chile came into force on 2 December 2000.[26][27][28] The two countries also have in force a Memorandum on co-operation between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs.[26] Agreements on cultural, tourism, and IT cooperation are being readied.[26]

Chile is among Estonia's most important foreign trade partners in South America.[29] In 2006, Estonia and Chile issued the joint Antarctic themed stamp series, designed by Ülle Marks and Jüri Kass, bearing images of the Emperor penguin and the minke whale.[30] The works of Chilean writers Isabel Allende, Pablo Neruda and José Donoso have been translated into Estonian.[26]

  • Chile is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland and maintains an honorary consulate in Tallinn.
  • Estonia is accredited to Chile from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tallinn and maintains an honorary consulate in Santiago.
 Colombia 22 September 1921
  • Colombia first recognised Estonia on 22 September 1921 and re-recognised the restored Republic of Estonia on 23 March 1994.
  • Colombia is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Warsaw, Poland.
  • Estonia is accredited to Colombia from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tallinn.
  • Colombia defines Estonia as a major ally and key player on Colombia's accession into the OECD and ratification of the Colombia-European Union Trade Agreement.[31]
 Costa Rica 4 October 1993[32]
  • Costa Rica does not have an accreditation to Estonia
  • Estonia does not have an accreditation to Costa Rica.
 Cuba 12 November 1991[33]
  • Cuba is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Estonia does not have an accreditation to Cuba.
 El Salvador
  • El Salvador is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Estonia does not have an accreditation to El Salvador.
 Guyana 19 April 1997

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 April 1997.[34]

  • Estonia does not have an accreditation to Guyana.
  • Guyana does not have an accreditation to Estonia.
 Mexico 28 January 1937 See Estonia–Mexico relations
  • Estonia and Mexico signed a friendship treaty on 28 January 1937.
  • Mexico was among those countries that never recognized Estonia's annexation by the Soviet Union. Mexico recognized the restored Republic of Estonia on 5 September 1991, while diplomatic relations were re-established on 5 December 1991.
  • Estonia is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States and maintains honorary consulates in Mexico City and in Tampico.[35]
  • Mexico is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland and maintains an honorary consulate in Tallinn.[36]
 Peru
  • Estonia is accredited to Peru from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tallinn.
  • Peru is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland and maintains an honorary consulate in Tallinn.
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 2009

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 September 2009.[37]

  • Estonia does not have an accreditation to Saint Kitts and Nevis.
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis does not have an accreditation to Estonia.
 United States 22 July 1922 See Estonia–United States relations
  • Estonia has an embassy in Washington, D.C. and consulates-general in New York City and San Francisco.[38]
  • United States has an embassy in Tallinn.[39]
 Uruguay
  • Estonia does not have an accreditation to Uruguay.
  • Uruguay is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland and maintains an honorary consulate in Tallinn.
 Venezuela
  • Estonia does not have an accreditation to Venezuela.
  • Venezuela is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Oslo, Norway.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan 1 July 2005
  • Afghanistan is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Warsaw, Poland.
  • Estonia is accredited to Afghanistan from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tallinn.
 Armenia 23 August 1992
  • Armenia is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Warsaw, Poland and an honorary consulate in Tallinn.
  • Estonia is accredited to Armenia from its embassy in Tbilisi, Georgia and through an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • There are around 2,000 of Armenian descent living in Estonia.
 Azerbaijan 20 April 1992 See Azerbaijan-Estonia relations
  • Estonia recognized the independence of Azerbaijan on February 20, 1992.
  • Diplomatic relations between Azerbaijan and Estonia have been established since April 20, 1992.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Estonia has an embassy office in Baku.
 Cambodia 31 August 2005
  • Cambodia is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Estonia does not have an accreditation for Cambodia.
 China 11 September 1991
  • China has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Beijing.

In June 2020, Estonia openly opposed the Hong Kong national security law[40]

 Georgia 17 June 1992
  • Georgia recognized Estonia on 27 August 1991.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Georgia
 India 22 September 1921 See Estonia–India relations
  • India first recognized Estonia on 22 September 1921 and re-recognized Estonia on 9 September 1991.
  • Estonia has an embassy in New Delhi.
  • India is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland and maintains an honorary consulate in Tallinn.
 Indonesia 5 July 1993
  • Estonia is accredited to Indonesia from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • Indonesia is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
 Iran 22 September 1921[41]
  • Iran recognized Estonia on 22 September 1921, Iran has never recognised the occupation of Estonia by the Soviet Union and re-recognized Estonia on 10 September 1991. Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 18 August 1992.
  • Estonia is accredited to Iran from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
  • Iran is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
 Iraq 22 April 2005
  • Estonia is accredited to Iraq from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tallinn.
  • Iraq is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
 Israel 9 January 1992
  • Israel recognized Estonia on 4 September 1991.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Tel Aviv.
  • Israel is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
 Japan 26 January 1921
  • Estonian has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Tallinn.
 Kazakhstan 27 May 1992
  • Estonia has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Tallinn.
 Kuwait 28 October 1994
  • Estonia is accredited to Kuwait from its embassy in Abu Dhabi, UAE.
  • Kuwait is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
 Kyrgyzstan 1996
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1996.
  • Estonia is accredited to Kyrgyzstan from its embassy in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.
  • Kyrgyzstan is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Minsk, Belarus.
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Malaysia 4 November 1993
  • Malaysia recognised the independence of Estonia on 11 September 1991 shortly after the dissolution of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic on 20 August 1991.[42] Relations between the two countries have been established since 4 November 1993.[42]
  • Estonia is accredited to Malaysia from its embassy in New Delhi, India and maintains an honorary consul in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysia is accredited to Estonia from its embassy Helsinki, Finland.
 Mongolia 20 October 1991
  • Estonia is accredited to Mongolia from its embassy in Beijing, China and maintains an honorary consulate in Ulaanbaatar.
  • Mongolia is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.
 North Korea
  • Both nations have not established diplomatic relations.
  • Estonia did not recognize North Korea and only recognized Republic of Korea as the sole legitimate regime in the Korean Peninsula.
 Oman 23 September 1992
  • Estonia is accredited to Oman from its embassy in Cairo, Egypt.
  • Oman is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in London, United Kingdom
 Pakistan 20 September 1993
  • Estonia does not have an accreditation to Pakistan.
  • Pakistan is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Warsaw, Poland.
 South Korea 17 September 1991

The establishment of diplomatic relations between Estonia and the Republic of Korea began on 1991-09-17.

  • Estonia has an embassy in Seoul.[43]
  • South Korea is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Estonia recognized South Korea as the sole legitimate regime in the Korean Peninsula.
 Sri Lanka 31 January 1996 See Estonia–Sri Lanka relations
  • Sri Lanka recognized Estonia on 10 October 1991.
  • Estonia is accredited to Sri Lanka from its embassy in New Delhi, India.
  • Sri Lanka is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.
 Tajikistan 2006
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 2006.
  • Estonia is accredited to Tajikistan from its embassy in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.
  • Tajikistan is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Minsk, Belarus.
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Thailand 22 October 1921
  • Thailand (then Siam) first recognized Estonia on 22 October 1921. Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 27 April 1992.
  • Estonia is accredited to Thailand through its embassy in Beijing, China.
  • Thailand is accredited to Estonia through its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
 Turkey 23 October 1991 See Estonia–Turkey relations
  • Turkey recognized Estonia on 23 October 1991.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both countries are full members of the NATO.
 Turkmenistan 26 August 1994
  • Estonia is accredited to Turkmenistan from its embassy in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.
  • Turkmenistan is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Minsk, Belarus.
 United Arab Emirates 28 March 2006
  • Estonia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • UAE is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.
 Uzbekistan 10 October 1994
  • Estonia is accredited to Uzbekistan from its embassy in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.
  • Uzbekistan is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Riga, Latvia.
 Vietnam
  • Estonia is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Beijing, China.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1 January 1992
  • Albania is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Warsaw, Poland.
  • Estonia is accredited to Albania from its embassy in Athens, Greece.
 Austria 26 June 1921
  • Austria recognised Estonia on 26 June 1921.
  • Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 8 January 1992.
  • Austria has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Belarus 6 April 1992
  • Belarus has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Minsk.
 Belgium 26 January 1921
  • Belgium is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Brussels.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 8 February 1993
  • Bosnia is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Estonia is accredited to Bosnia from its embassy in Budapest, Hungary.
 Bulgaria 20 May 1921 See Bulgaria–Estonia relations
  • Bulgaria recognised Estonia on 20 May 1921 and re-recognised Estonia on 26 August 1991.
  • Bulgaria is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland and maintains an honorary consulate in Tallinn.
  • Estonia is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania and has an honorary consulate in Sofia.
 Croatia 2 March 1992
  • Croatia is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Estonia is accredited to Croatia from its embassy in Prague, Czech Republic.
  • In 2000 the two countries mutually ended the visa regimes for citizens travelling between the two states.[44] In September 2008, the Estonian prime minister Andrus Ansip made a state visit to Croatia in which he supported the country on its way toward NATO and EU membership.
 Cyprus 22 January 1992
  • Cyprus is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Estonia is accredited to Cyprus from its embassy in Athens, Greece.
 Czech Republic 9 September 1991
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Prague.
 Denmark 1921 See Denmark–Estonia relations
  • Denmark has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Copenhagen.
 Finland 20 June 1920 See Estonia–Finland relations
  • Finland first recognised Estonia on 20 June 1920.
  • Finland has an embassy in Tallinn and an honorary consulate in Tartu.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Helsinki and six honorary consulates in Kotka, Mariehamn, Oulu, Tampere, Turku and Vaasa.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of the Baltic Sea States and of the European Union.
 France 26 January 1921
  • France recognised Estonia on 26 January 1921. France never recognised the Soviet occupation of Estonia. France re-stated its recognition on 25 August 1991.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Paris and 4 honorary consulates (in Lille, Lyon, Nancy and Toulouse).
  • France has its French Institute of Estonia in Tallinn.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
 Germany 28 August 1991 See Estonia–Germany relations
  • Estonia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Greece 19 May 1922 See Estonia–Greece relations
  • Greece recognised Estonia on 19 May 1922. Greece never recognised the Soviet annexation of Estonia.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Athens.
  • Greece has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and the European Union.
  • Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Greece
  • Greek Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Estonia
  Holy See 10 October 1921
  • Estonia is accredited to the Holy from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tallinn.
  • Holy See is accredited to Estonia from its Apostolic Nunciature in Vilnius, Lithuania.
  • In September 1993, Pope John Paul II visited Estonia.
  • Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the bilateral relations with the Vatican
 Hungary 24 February 1921
  • Hungary recognised Estonia on 24 February 1921.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
  • Estonia Ministry of Foreign affairs about relations with Hungary
 Iceland 30 January 1922
  • Iceland was the first country to re-recognized Estonia's independence on 22 August 1991.
  • Estonia is accredited to Iceland through its embassy in Oslo, Norway and maintains an honorary consulate in Reykjavík.
  • Iceland is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO, of the Council of Europe and of the Council of the Baltic Sea States.
 Ireland 27 August 1991
  • Ireland recognised Estonia on 27 August 1991.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Dublin.
  • Ireland has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Italy 26 January 1921
  • Italy recognised Estonia on 26 January 1921 . Italy re-recognised Estonia on 27 August 1991.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Rome.
  • Italy has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
 Kosovo 24 April 2008 See Estonia–Kosovo relations
  • Estonia recognized Kosovo on 21 February 2008.
  • Estonia is accredited to Kosovo from its embassy in Vienna, Austria.
  • Kosovo is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.
 Latvia 3 December 1918 See Estonia–Latvia relations
  • Estonia has an embassy in Riga.
  • Latvia has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • The two states share 343 km of common borders.[citation needed]
  • They enjoy close relations sharing a common history of relations in the USSR and being neighbours.[45]
 Lithuania 1919 See Estonia–Lithuania relations
  • Estonia has an embassy in Vilnius.
  • Lithuania has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Until 31 July 2016 the Estonian ambassador to Lithuania was Toomas Kukk.
  • Both countries are situated in the Baltic region and are the full members of NATO and EU.
 Luxembourg 22 February 1923
  • Luxembourg recognized Estonia on 22 February 1923 and re-recognised Estonia on 27 August 1991.[46] Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 29 August 1991.[46]
  • Estonia is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium and maintains an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City.
  • Trade agreement between Estonia and Belgium and Luxembourg (1935)[47]
  • Agreement on Road Transport between Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands (came into force 1 December 1994)[48]
  • Agreement Between Estonia and the Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments (came into force 23 September 1999)[49]
  • Agreement Between Estonia and the States of Benelux on Readmission of Persons (came into force 1 February 2005)
  • Agreement on the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Income and Capital Tax evasion (signed 23 May 2006)
 Malta 1 January 1992
  • Malta recognized Estonia on 26 August 1991.
  • Estonia is accredited to Malta from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
  • Malta is accredited to Estonia from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Valletta.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Moldova 10 November 1992
  • Moldova recognized Estonia on 28 August 1991 and Estonia recognized Moldova on 20 February 1992.
  • Estonia haș an embassy office in Chişinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 Montenegro 13 June 2006
  • Estonia is accredited to Montenegro from its embassy in Budapest, Hungary.
  • Montenegro is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Warsaw, Poland.
 Netherlands 5 March 1921
  • The Netherlands recognized Estonia on 5 March 1921. After the end of Soviet occupation the Netherlands re-recognised Estonia on 2 September 1991.
  • Estonia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
 North Macedonia 2 March 1995

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 March 1995.

  • Estonia is accredited to North Macedonia from its embassy in Budapest, Hungary.
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Tallinn.
 Norway 5 February 1921
  • Norway recognized Estonia on 5 February 1921. Norway never recognized the annexation of the Baltic States by the Soviet Union.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Oslo and three honorary consulates (in Trondheim, Tromsø and Stavanger).[50]
  • Norway has an embassy in Tallinn.[51]
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of the Baltic Sea States.
 Poland 31 December 1920 See Estonia–Poland relations
  • Poland recognized Estonia's independence on 31 December 1920 and re-recognized it on 26 August 1991.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Warsaw and three honorary consulates (in Szczecin, Poznań and Kraków).[52]
  • Poland has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of the Baltic Sea States, of NATO and of the European Union.
 Portugal 6 February 1921
  • Portugal recognized Estonia de facto in 1918 and de jure on 6 February 1921. Portugal never recognized the occupation of Estonia by the Soviet Union. Portugal re-recognized Estonia on 27 August 1991.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
 Romania 26 February 1921
  • Romania recognized Estonia's independence on 26 February 1921.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Romania has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
 Russia 2 February 1920 See Estonia–Russia relations

Russia recognized Estonia via the Tartu Peace Treaty on 2 February 1920. Russian-Estonian relations were re-established in January 1991, when leaders of the two countries, Boris Yeltsin of Russia and Arnold Rüütel of Estonia, met in Tallinn and signed a treaty on the relations of the two countries after the anticipated independence of Estonia from the Soviet Union.[53][54] The treaty envisaged the right to freely choose their citizenship for all permanent residents of Estonia at the time.

Russia re-recognized the Republic of Estonia on 24 August 1991 after the failed Soviet coup attempt, as one of the first countries to do so. The Soviet Union recognised the independence of Estonia on 6 September 1991. Estonia's ties with Boris Yeltsin's government weakened after the Russian president's initial show of solidarity with the Baltic states in January 1991. Issues surrounding the withdrawal of Russian troops from the Baltic countries and Estonia's denial of automatic citizenship to persons who settled in Estonia in 1940–1991 and their offspring[55] ranked high on the list of points of contention.

  • Estonia has an embassy in Moscow and consulates-general in Pskov and Saint Petersburg.
  • Russia has an embassy in Tallinn and consulates-general in Narva and Tartu.
 Serbia 9 February 2001
  • Estonia is accredited to Serbia from its embassy in Budapest, Hungary.
  • Serbia is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
 Slovakia 30 March 1993
  • Estonia recognised Slovakia on 15 January 1993.
  • Estonia is accredited to Slovakia through its embassy in Vienna, Austria.
  • Slovakia is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
 Spain 25 March 1921 See Estonia–Spain relations
  • Spain recognized Estonia in 1921. Spain renewed its recognition of Estonia on 27 August 1991.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
 Sweden See Estonia–Sweden relations
  • Estonia was under Swedish rule between 1561 and 1721.
  • Sweden re-recognized Estonia on 27 August 1991.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Stockholm and five honorary consulates (in Eskilstuna, Gothenburg, Karlskrona, Malmö and Visby).
  • Sweden has an embassy in Tallinn and two honorary consulates (in Narva and Tartu).
  Switzerland 4 September 1991
  • Estonia is accredited to Switzerland from its embassy in Vienna, Austria.
  • Switzerland is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Riga, Latvia.
 Ukraine 4 January 1992
  • Ukraine recognised Estonia on 26 August 1991.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Tallinn.

The contractual and legal framework of relations between Ukraine and Estonia covers a wide range of branches of bilateral cooperation, including political, trade and economic, scientific and technical, humanitarian, law enforcement and other spheres. This base is ramified and efficient enough and includes 53 bilateral documents, among which are 3 interstate agreements, 15 intergovernmental and 35 interdepartmental.

Ukraine and Estonia bring together common aspirations in the political, economic, social and other spheres. Recognizing Ukraine as its foreign policy priority, Estonia is one of the most consistent supporters of Ukraine's European choice, supported the signing of the Agreement on the Association of Ukraine with the EU.

Intensive bilateral contacts between state and non-governmental institutions are developing, and interaction within the framework of international organizations is active. At the state level, the important role played by Ukraine in ensuring stability and security in Europe is constantly stressed. Estonia supports political and socio-economic reforms in Ukraine, provides substantial humanitarian, financial and advisory and technical assistance.

 United Kingdom 5 February 1921 See Estonia–United Kingdom relations
  • Estonia has an embassy in London.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Both countries are now full members of NATO.
  • Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom paid a state visit to Estonia in October 2006.[56]
  • Prince Harry also made a state visit in May 2014 and paid tribute to Estonia's war dead.[57]

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 22 September 1921 See Australia–Estonia relations
  • Australia first recognised Estonia on 22 September 1921.
  • Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 21 November 1991.
  • Australia is accredited to Estonia through a part-time (pop-up) embassy in Tallinn since 2018.[58]
  • Estonia has an embassy in Canberra.
  • Australia is host to one of the largest communities of Estonians abroad, with 8,232 people identifying as Estonian in the 2006 Australian Census.[59][60]
 New Zealand 6 January 1992[61]
  • Estonia is accredited to New Zealand from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Warsaw, Poland.
 Samoa 2009

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 January 2009.[62]

  • Estonia does not have an accreditation to Samoa.
  • Samoa does not have an accreditation to Estonia.
 Tonga 13 March 2015
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 March 2015.
  • Estonia does not have an accreditation to Tonga.
  • Tonga does not have an accreditation to Estonia.

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Estonia strives to be at the core of the EU". The Finnish Institute of International Affairs. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
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  4. ^ Estonian foreign ministry publication Archived 7 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine, 2002
  5. ^ "NATO :: NATO :: Estonia as a Nordic Country".
  6. ^ "Estonia - Nordic with a Twist". Archived from the original on 8 February 2008.
  7. ^ "The Estonian Economic Miracle". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  8. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 2 June 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Foreign investment
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  36. ^ "Embassy of Mexico in Finland | Embajada de México en Finlandia". embamex.sre.gob.mx.
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  40. ^ Lawler, Dave (2 July 2020). "The 53 countries supporting China's crackdown on Hong Kong". Axios. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
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